The following engraving, Fig. 1, shows the mode in which railway carriages were at first attached together; which consisted simply of a chain, the buffers of one carriage not coming in contact with those of another, but each carriage was allowed, when moving onwards, a lateral oscillating motion.

Fig.1.

Railway Carriage Connectors 401

In the subjoined engravings, Figures 2 and 3, Mr. Booth's highly improved method of connecting them is shown. It is a most complete invention for the purpose, and consequently adopted on almost every railway in the kingdom. a is the connecting chain attached to the draw-bar of each carriage, and consists of a double working screw (working within two long links or shackles), the sockets of which are spirally threaded to receive the screw bolts, which are fastened together by a pin and cotter, so that by turning the arm or lever Z of the said screws, the connecting apparatus is lengthened or shortened at pleasure, to the extent of the long links or shackles above alluded to, in which they work. This screw-chain being placed on the hooks, or turned-up ends of the carriage draw-bars d, the buffers b of each adjoining carriage being first brought close, or nearly close together, the lever Z is turned round a few times till the draw-bars d are drawn an inch or two beyond their shoulders, on the face of the carriage frame e, stretching the draw-springs, to which the draw-bars are attached, to the extent of a fourth or fifth part of their elasticity; and by that degree of force attaching the buffers of the adjoining carriages together, and giving by this means, Mr. Booth states, "to a train of carriages, a combined steadiness and smoothness of motion at rapid speeds, which they have not when the buffers of each carriage are separate from those of the adjoining carriage." w is a weight to keep the lever in a vertical position, and prevent the unscrewing of the chain when in action.

Fig. 2.

Railway Carriage Connectors 402

Fig. 3.

Railway Carriage Connectors 403