The intention of the diagram Fig. 3 is to show the method adapted by the patentee, for throwing the revolving shaft in and out of gear, and likewise to exhibit the mode by which the power is applied. d is the box of the batton. e is a small bent lever, attached to the box. f is a sliding-bolt connected to a latch g, by a cord. h h is a long right-angled lever, furnished at the extremity with an inclined plane, for the purpose of putting the wheel in and out of gear. »' is the lever connected with the clutch, and is operated upon by the lever h.
The action of this machine is wholly effected by the revolution of the bar b, Fig. 1, in the top of the loom, which, as already described, is equipped with four wipers, and two cams or snails. The two central wipers f f, as they revolve, operate on the lever k, and move the batton mm, as required; the two cams e d, right and left, act alternately on a lever each, i i; the reverse ends of these levers are connected to two vertical rods n n, suspended from a bracket in front of the loom; these levers i i are likewise connected by a spiral spring w, that the action of the cams at the necessary periods may cause the springs to become charged, at the time the levers in traversing the cams meet with a sudden declension or fall, when the distended spring suddenly contracts, and drives the shuttle across the work. The other two wipers g g, act upon two treadles h h, to make the shed or opening for the passage of the shuttle; one revolution of this bar completes two shoot3, causing these cams and wipers to act uniformly with each other, and to perform the whole operation required in simple weaving.
In order to accomplish more complex weaving, when more than two treadles are required, a second bar is introduced, equipped with as many wipers as treadles wanted; the wipers being placed at equal distances on the circumference of the bar. If four are necessary, as the principal bar, in making one revolution, acts upon the treadles twice; therefore, in order to work over the four treadles upon the second bar, the principal bar in this case must make two revolutions to one revolution of the secondary bar. If five treadles be required, the principal bar must make two and a half revolutions to one of the secondary bar; and so on, to any number of treadles used in " plain complex weaving." The uniform motion of the two bars are regulated by cog-wheels upon their axes, which are adapted according to the nature of the work. If a greater number of treadles be required, than the hand-loom is able to accomplish, with ease, it only requires the aid of the jacquard, mounted upon the loom, to simplify the "complex-figured weaving."
The next power-loom we shall describe, is the invention of M. De Bergue, a French gentleman, who, it appears, came to this country with it, under the impression, that similar inventions had not previously occupied the attention and skill of British mechanists; and there are, undoubtedly, in several of his combinations, a considerable degree of originality and ingenuity of design. This loom we have also had several opportunities of seeing at work, and can confidently state, that it operates in a very efficient manner. The engraving on the preceding page, marked Fig. 4, affords a side elevation of the machine, and will be sufficient, with the subjoined and following diagrams, to explain the construction. a is the shaft of the loom, by the rotation of which all the various motions are either simultaneously or successively produced. The rotation of this shaft is effected either by hand applied to the lay, which constitutes it a hand-loom; or by means of a band or strap, from another shaft at c, passing over drum-wheels or pulley, as shown by that at e, and the bands proceeding therefrom, which makes it a power-loom. The axis of the drum e carries a spur-wheel, which gears into another on the shaft a, and its rotation gives motion to two eccentrics f, fixed at each of the shafts within the frame.
This motion is shown in the annexed engraving, Fig. 5, where the letter a also indicates the shaft, and f the eccentric turned round by it: in the annular path or race f is a friction-roller g, attached by a bent arm to a vibrating lever h, the upper end of which is fixed fast to the lay, and the lower end turns upon a centre or pivot, passing through the side frame of the loom; the eccentric revolution of f therefore causes the lever A to vibrate, and with it the lay, in that very steady and uniform manner, so essential to good weaving.
In the middle of the shaft a, is a broad wheel, (not shown,) in the periphery of which are made two deep grooves, so inclined to each other as to cross in the middle, like the letter X: in these grooves a projecting pin from the shuttle-rod works, so that, by the revolution of the wheel, the said pin traverses the X groove from side to side, and the shuttle-rod, turning upon a fulcrum just above it, is thrown from side to side alternately; and the upper end of the said rod being connected by cords to drivers which slide upon a polished wire, fixed in a channel of the lay. The shuttle is impelled backwards and forwards through the warp by means of the treadles, which are worked by a peculiar eccentric movement, as will be explained by reference to the annexed Fig. 6.
At l l, the ends of the levers, (seen in section,) are connected to the horizontal levers v v, (answering to the treadles of the common loom,) which turn upon a joint at the back of the looms. The other ends of the levers are furnished with steel pins x, which work in two eccentrics having the peculiarly shaped grooves delineated in the figure, as the said eccentrics revolve upon their central axis a; the revolution of these eccentrics, it will be perceived, causes the steel pins alternately to traverse along the external groove, and then the internal heart-shaped groove, which produces that peculiar vibration in the bars vv; and the required reciprocation of the lames l l, to open the threads of the warp after each successive shoot. The reed or cane, which is the immediate instrument for beating up the threads of the woof, is situated in the lay or batton. The cloth as it is woven passes over the breast-beam, and winds itself on the roller, which receives its motion by a toothed wheel fixed upon it, and a pinion upon the same axis as the ratchet-wheel.