The vat is then covered up very hot, and left to stand six hours, when it is raked again for half an hour, and this operation is repeated every three hours. When blue veins appear on the surface of the vat, eight or nine pounds of quick lime are thrown in. Immediately after the lime, or along with it, the indigo is put into the vat, being first ground fine in a mill, with the least possible quantity of water (it is now usually ground dry.) When it is diluted to a semi-fluid consistence, it is drawn off at the lower part of the mill, and thrown thus into the vat. The quantity of indigo depends upon the shade of colour required. From ten to thirty pounds must therefore be put to the vat now described, according to the occasion.

If, on striking the vat with the rake, a fine blue scum arises, it is fit for use, after being stirred twice with the rake in six hours, to mix the ingredients. Great care should be taken not to expose the vat to the air, except when stirring it. As soon as that operation is over, the vat is covered with a wooden lid, on which are spread thick cloths, to retain the heat as much as possible. Notwithstanding this care, the heat is so much diminished at the end of eight or ten days, that the liquor must be re-heated, by pouring the greater part of it into a copper over a large fire; when it is hot enough, it is returned into the vat, and covered as before.

This vat is liable to two inconveniences: first, it runs sometimes into the putrefactive fermentation, which is known by the fetid odour it exhales, and by the reddish colour it assumes. This accident is remedied by adding more lime. The vat is then raked: after two hours, lime is put in, the raking performed again, and these operations are repeated till the vat is recovered; secondly, if too much lime is added, the necessary fermentation is retarded; this is remedied by putting in more bran or madder, or a basket or two of fresh woad.

When cloth is to be dyed, the vat is raked two hours before the operation; and to prevent it from coming in contact with the sediment, which would cause •inequalities in the colour, a kind of lattice of large cords, called a cross, is introduced; when unmanufactured wool is to be dyed, a net with small meshes is placed over this. The wool or cloth, being thoroughly wetted with lukewarm water, is pressed out, and dipped into the vat, where it is moved about a longer or shorter time, according as the colour is intended to be more or less deep, taking it out occasionally to expose it to the air, the action of which is necessary to change the green colour, given the stuff by the bath, to a blue. Woollen and cloth dyed in this manner ought to be carefully washed, to carry off the loose colouring matter; and, when they are of a deep hue, soap should be used, as it will only cleanse and not injure the colour. The more perfectly the wool has been scoured, the better it will receive the dye.

A vat which contains no woad, is called an indigo-vat. For this vat, the indigo is rendered soluble in water by potash instead of lime; a copper vessel is used, and six pounds of potash, twelve ounces of madder, and six pounds of bran, are boiled with every 120 gallons of water; six pounds of finely-ground indigo are then added, and, after carefully raking it, the vat is covered, and a slow fire kept round it. Twelve hours afterwards, it is to be raked a second time, and this operation is to be repeated at similar intervals of time, till the dye becomes blue, which will generally happen in forty-eight hours. If the bath be properly managed, it will be of a green colour, covered with coppery scales, and a fine blue scum.

The dye called Saxon blue is made with the solution of indigo in sulphuric acid. Take four parts of sulphuric acid, and pour them on one part of indigo, in fine powder; let the mixture be stirred for some time, and after it has stood twenty-four hours, add one part of dry potash; let the whole be again well stirred, and after it has stood a day and a night, add gradually more or less water. The cloth to be dyed, must be prepared with tartar and alum, and more or less indigo must be put into the bath, according to the shade required. For deep shades, also, the cloth must be passed several times through the bath, light shades may be dyed after deep ones, but they will not have the lustre given by a fresh bath.

Reds are a very important class of colours, and are furnished by a great number of substances. They all depend, either for their fixedness or beauty, upon the use of mordants; the principal of them are kermes, cochineal, archil, madder, carthamus, and Brazil-wood. Pewter boilers, or well-tinned copper, must be used in preparing all red baths.

The shades of red are usually distinguished into three classes; namely, the madder red, crimson, and scarlet. Madder is employed for coarse goods. It gives out its colour to water; and the bath prepared with it is not made hotter than what the hand can bear, until the wool has been in it about an hour, when it may be boiled for a few minutes just before the wool is taken out. It may be used in the proportion of one-third or one-fourth of the wool dyed. Cloths are prepared forthe madder-bath, by boiling them for two or three hours in a solution of alum and tartar; after having been taken out of which, they are left to drain for a few days in a cool place before they are dyed. The use of archil gives a fine but transient bloom to the madder dye. Archil and Brazil-wood, from their perishableness, are seldom used to wool, except in this way, as auxiliaries.

When sulphate of copper is employed as the mordant, madder dyes a clear brown, inclining to yellow. Tin brightens its colour, but not materially.

Kermes has not been much used since the art of brightening cochineal with tin was discovered, as it has not so fine a bloom as the latter dye, though it possesses greater durability. Kermes imparts its colour to water; and the quantity of it used, is, for a full colour, at least three-fourths of the weight of the wool employed. The wool isput in at the first boiling, after having been previously prepared by boiling it for half an hour in water with bran, and afterwards two hours in another bath, with one-tenth of tartar dissolved in sour water, and then leaving it for a few days in a linen bag.