This section is from the book "Spons' Mechanics' Own Book: A Manual For Handicraftsmen And Amateurs", by Edward Spon. Also available from Amazon: Spons' Mechanics' Own Book.
For these, the scrim is tacked down to the bottom of the frame in front, and finished with a round edge in calico slightly hanging over, but no stitched-up edge to the seat. The seat is filled with very soft 8-in. springs, and the plain part is upholstered in tapestry in the usual way, and stitched to a line previously marked on the calico. Half diamonds for the tufted front are marked on the calico, allowing the buttons about 3 in. apart, and holes are snipped for button marks. The plush is marked with a fulness allowance of 11/2 in. good. Hair of superior quality is rilled in on the top of the calico, tufted round, kept in place by sewing to the tapestry, and finished with cord or gimp to cover the stitches. Festoons of plush cover the tacks on the rail, and are finished with a fringe 1 or 1 1/2 in. deep. The inside of the back and sides is webbed, canvassed, and finished in tapestry without any stitching. The pad which runs round the back and arms is finished in scrim cut on the skew, which renders it softer and makes it hold better. The hair is tacked rather firm on the pads and stitched only on the front scrolls. The pad is marked for buttons about 4 in. apart, and holes are snipped to let them sink a little.
The wadding is laid on and covered with plush, finishing with good-sized cord. To form plaits and fulness near the bottom, the festoons are cut wider at the bottom than at the top; they are made and tacked on separately, a bold cord covering the tacks as on the inside of the back. When a bolster is added on the top of the back, it is formed in the stuffing as follows. A good body of superior hair is picked or strung on the top rail, and made firm but not tight; the scrim is cut 20 in. wide on the skew, tacked down, and stitched up to a fine edge.