For fixing the leaf on polished or japanned surfaces, the water size used as a ground should contain no spirit. The best fixative for the pattern is Brunswick black. A final coat of copal varnish over the gilding is desirable. By bronzing a portion of the ground (rubbing bronze powder on a coat of japanners' gold size and chrome yellow), and gilding all over, the bronzed part will exhibit dead gilding and the remainder bright.

Many useful hints with reference to gilding picture-frames, book-covers, illuminated documents, and various other articles, will be found in the first series of ' Workshop Receipts.'