This section is from the book "Spons' Mechanics' Own Book: A Manual For Handicraftsmen And Amateurs", by Edward Spon. Also available from Amazon: Spons' Mechanics' Own Book.
Isometrical perspective is often useful in drawing, especially in wood structures, when the material is of rectangular section, and disposed at right angles, as in machine frames. One isometrical view, which can be made nearly as quickly as a true elevation, will show all the parts, and may be figured for dimensions the same as plane views. True perspective, although rarely necessary in mechanical drawing, may be studied with advantage in connection with geometry; it will often lead to the explanation of problems in isometric drawing, and will also assist in free-hand lines that have sometimes to be made to show parts of machinery oblique to the regular planes.
Geometrical drawings consist of plans, elevations, and sections; plans being views on the top of the object in a horizontal plane; elevations, views on the sides of the object in vertical planes; and sections, views taken on bisecting planes, at any angle through an object Drawings in true elevation or in section are based upon flat planes, and given dimensions parallel to the planes in which the views are taken.
Two elevations taken at right angles to each other fix all points, and give all dimensions of parts that have their axis parallel to the planes on which the views are taken; but when a machine is complex, or when several parts lie in the same plane, 3 and sometimes 4 views are required to display all the parts in a comprehensive manner.
Mechanical drawings should be made with reference to all the processes that are required in the construction of the work, and the drawings should bo responsible, not only for dimensions, but for unnecessary expense in fitting, forging, pattern-making, moulding, and so on.
Every part laid down has something to govern it that may be termed a " base " - some condition of function or position which, if understood, will suggest size, shape, and relation to other parts. By searching after a base for each and every part and detail, the draughtsman proceeds upon a regular system, continually maintaining a test of what is done.