This is tanned in Russia with the bark of various species of willow, poplar, and larch, either by laying away in pits or handling in liquors, much like other light leathers, the lime being first removed by bating, either in a drench of rye- and oat-meals and salt, by dog dung, or by sour liquors. After tanning, the hides are again softened and cleansed by a weak drench of rye- and oat-meals. They are then shaved down, carefully sleeked and scoured out, and dried. The peculiar odour is given by saturating them with birch-bark oil, which is rubbed into the flesh side with cloths. This oil is produced by dry distillation of the bark and twigs of the birch. The red colour is given by dyeing with Brazil-wood; and the diamond shaped marking by rolling with grooved rollers.

Much of the leather now sold as "Russia" is produced in Germany, France, and England. It is tanned in the customary way, occasionally with willow, but more generally with oak-bark, and probably other materials. Economy would suggest the use of such materials as, from their red colour, are objectionable for other purposes, and therefore cheap. The currying is in the usual manner, care being taken that the oil used does not strike through to the grain, which would prevent it taking the dye. The colour is given by grounding with a solution of chloride of tin (100 parts perchloride tin, 30 parts nitric acid, 25 parts hydrochloric acid, allowed to stand some days, and the clear solution poured off, and mixed with 12 volumes of water). The dye-liquor may be composed of 70 parts rasped Brazil-wood, 3 parts tartar, and 420 water, boiled together, strained, and allowed to settle clear. The grounding and dyeing is done on a table with a brush or sponge. The odour is communicated by rubbing the flesh-side with a mixture of fish-oil and birch-bark oil, which sometimes contains no more than 5 per cent, of the latter