There is 1 valve i at the bottom of the barrel, and another in the bucket 6.
The suction-pipe k should be 3/8 the diameter of the pump barrel. A rose l is fixed at the end of the suction-pipe to : keep out any solid matter that might be drawn into the pump and stop the action of the valves The suction-pipe must be fixed with great care. The joints must be air-tight: if of cast flange-pipe, which is the most durable, a packing of hemp, with white and red lead, and screwed up with 4 nuts and screws, or a washer of vulcanised rubber 3/8 in. thick, with screw bolts, is best. If the suction-pipe is of gas-tube, the sockets must all be taken off, and a paint of boiled oil and red-lead be put on the screwed end, then a string of raw hemp bound round and well screwed up with the gas tongs, making a sure joint for cold water, steam, or gas.
Many plumbers prefer lead pipe, so that they can make the usual plumbers' joint. The tail m of the pump is for fixing the suction-pipe on a plank level with the ground. Stages n are fixed at every 12 ft. in a well; the suction-pipe is fixed to these by a strap staple, or the action of the pump would damage the joints. There are two plans for fixing the suction-pipe; (1) in a well o directly under the pump; (2) the suction-pipe p may be laid in a horizontal direction, and about 18 in. deep under the ground (to keep the water from freezing in winter) for almost any distance to a pond, the only consideration being the extra labour of exhausting so much air. In the end of such suction-pipe p it is usual to fix an extra valve, called a "tail" valve, to prevent the water from running out of the pipe when not in use. The action is simply explained. First raise the handle e, which lowers the piston 6 to i; during this movement the air that was in the barrel a is forced through the valve in the piston b; when the handle is lowered, and the piston begins to rise, this valve closes and pumps out the air; in the meantime the air expands in the suction-pipe k, and rises into the barrel 6 through the valve i; at the second stroke of the piston this valve closes and prevents the air getting back to the suction-pipe, which is pumped out as before.
After a few strokes of the pump handle, the air in the suction-pipe is nearly drawn out, creating what is called a vacuum, and then as the water is pressed by the outward air equal to 15 lb. on the sq. in.,,the water rises into the barrel as fast as the piston rises; also the water will remain in the suction-pipe as long as the piston and valves are in proper working order.
Water to be raised.
of pump Barrel.
Water delivered per Hour at
30 Strokes per Min.
Well Rods for
Fig. 57 shows a lift- and force-pump suitable for raising water from a well 30 ft. deep, and forcing it to the top of a house. The pump barrel a is fixed to a strong plank 6, and fitted with "slings" at c to enable the piston to work parallel in the barrel, a guide rod working through a collar guiding the piston in a perpendicular position. d is the handle. The suction-pipe e and rose / are fixed in the well g as already explained. At the top of the working barrel is a stuffing-box A, filled with hemp and tallow, which keeps the pump-rod water-tight. When the piston is raised to the top of the barrel, the valve % in the delivery-pipe k closes, and prevents the water descending at the down-stroke of the piston. The valve in the bucket l, also at m in the barrel a, is the same as in the common pump. The pipe k is called the "force" for this description of pump.
Fig. 58 shows a design for a deep well pump, consisting of the usual fittings - viz., a brass barrel a, a suction-pipe with rose 6, rising main pipe c, well-rod d, wooden or iron stages e f g, and clip and guide pulleys A. The well-rod and the rising main must be well secured to the stages, which are fixed every 12 ft. down the well. An extra strong stage is fixed at t, to carry the pump - if of wood, beech or ash, 5 ft. X 9 in. x 4 in.; the other stages may be 4 in. sq.
The handle is mounted on a plank k fitted with guide slings, either at right angles or side-ways to the plank. The handle / is weighted with a solid ball-end at m, which will balance the well-rod fixed to the piston. By fixing the pump barrel down the well about 12 ft. from the level of the water, the pump will act better than if it were fixed 30 ft. above the water, because any small wear and tear of the piston does not so soon affect the action of the pump, and therefore saves trouble and expense, as the pump will keep in working order longer. It is usual to fix an air-vessel at n. The valves o are similar to those already described. In the best-constructed pumps, man-holes are arranged near the valves to enable workmen to clean or repair the same, without taking up the pump. Every care should be given to make strong and sound joints for the suction-pipe and delivery-pipe, as the pump cannot do its proper duty should the pipes be leaky or draw air.
To find the total weight or pressure of water to be raised from a well, reckon from the water level in the well to the delivery in the house tank or elsewhere. For example, if the well is 27 ft. deep, and the house tank is 50 ft. above the' pump barrel; then you have 77 ft. pressure, or about 39 lb. pressure per sq. in. That portion of the pipe which takes a horizontal position may be neglected. The pressure of water in working a pump is according to the diameter of the pump barrel. Suppose the barrel to be 3 in. diam., it would contain 7 sq. in., and say the total height of water raised to be 77 ft., equal to 39 lb. pressure, multiplied by 7 sq. in., is equal to 539 lb. to be raised or balanced by a pump handle; then if the leverage of the pump handle were, the short arm 6 in. and long arm 36 in., or as 6 to 1, you have (539 X 1) + 56 = 90 lb. power on the handle to work the pump, which would require 2 men to do the work, unless you obtained extra leverage by wheel work. When the suction- or delivery-pipe is too small, it adds enormously to the power required to work a pump, and the water is then called "wire-drawn." When pumps are required for tar or liquid manure, the suction- and delivery-pipe should be the same size as the pump barrel, to prevent choking.
The operations of plumbing and making joints in pipes will be found fully described and illustrated in 'spons' Mechanics' Own Book.'