This section is from the book "Applied Science For Metal Workers", by William H. Dooley. Also available from Amazon: Applied Science For Metal Workers.
Plumbers use a mixture of one part Portland cement and two parts clean sand over a ring of oakum in making joints on earthenware house sewers.
* Oakum is prepared from old ropes, untwisted, loosened, and picked to pieces. The material is then treated with tar to make it flexible. It is used in calking the seams of vessels, etc.
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