Different substances are employed for making varnish, the object being to produce a liquid easily applied to the surface of cloth, paper or metal, which, when dry, will protect it with a fine skin.

Gums and resins are the substances employed for making varnishes; they are dissolved either in turpentine, alcohol, or oil, in a close stone ware, glass or metal vessel, exposed to a low heat, as the case may require, or cold. The alcohol or turpentine dissolves the gum or resin, and holds them in solution, and after the application of the varnish, this mixture being mechanical, the moisture of the liquid evaporates, and the gum adheres to the article to which it is applied.

The choice of linseed oil is of peculiar consequence to the varnish-maker. Oil from fine full-grown ripe seed, when viewed in a vial, will appear limpid, pale, and brilliant; it is mellow and sweet to the taste, has very little smell, is specifically lighter than impure oil, and, when clarified, dries quickly and firmly, and docs not materially change the color of the varnish when made, but appears limpid and brilliant.