To form a hard, perfect white ground is no easy matter, as the substances which are generally used to make the japan hard, have a tendency, by a number of coats, to look or become dull in brightness. One white ground is made by the following composition: white flake or lead washed over and ground up with a sixth of its weight of starch, then dried and mixed with the finest gum, ground up in parts of one ounce gum, to half an ounce of rectified turpentine mixed and ground thoroughly together. This is to be finely laid on the article to be japanned, dried, and then varnished with five or six coats of the following: two ounces of the whitest seed-lac to three ounces of gum-anima reduced to a fine powder and dissolved in a quart of alcohol. This lac must be carefully picked. For a softer varnish than this, a little turpentine should be added, and less of the gum. A very good varnish and not brittle, may bo made by dissolving gum-anima in nut oil, boiling it gently as the gum is added, and giving the oil as much gum as it will take up. The ground of white varnish may of itself be made of this varnish, by giving two or three coats of it, but when used it should be diluted with pure turpentine. Although this varnish is not brittle it is liable to be indented with strokes, and it will not bear to be polished, but if well laid on it will not need polishing afterwards; it also takes some time to dry. Heat applied to all oils, however, darkens their color, and oil varnishes for white grow very yellow if not exposed to a full clear light.