116. The term Cornice is ordinarily used to designate any molded projection or collection of moldings which finishes or crowns the part to which it is affixed. The term in this sense is applicable in all styles of architecture. In classical architecture, however, it is confined to the upper division of the entablature, the whole of which, according to modern ideas, might be considered as a cornice. The distinction is shown in Fig. 75, which shows an entablature of a design adaptable to sheet metal construction, and in which all enrichment has been omitted. The names of parts given in the illustration are such as arc generally understood by architects and cornice makers. The cornice of classical architecture may contain simply a bed mold. planceer and crown mold, or it may contain, in addition, a dentil course or a modillion course, or both.

Fig. 75.   The Entablature and Its Parts.

Fig. 75. - The Entablature and Its Parts.

117. The Entablature was used by the ancients to finish a wall or colonnade (more especially the latter), and consisted of three parts, the cornice, the frieze and the architrave. (Fig. 75.)

118. The Architrave, the lower division of the entablature, was in reality a lintel used to span the space between the columns, but its form was maintained when used above a wall. In modern imitations of the antique styles the molded portion is frequently used without the fascias, in which case it is commonly known as the foot mold. (Fig. 75.) The term architrave is also used to designate the molding and fascias running around an arch or a window opening.

119. The Frieze, the middle division of the entablature, is really a continuation of the wall surface to add hight and effect to the building, and was originally intended for the display of symbols, inscriptions, ornaments, etc., appropriate to the use of the building of which it was a part. It is sometimes treated very plainly and sometimes receives considerable ornamentation, being subdivided into panels or enriched by scrolls, etc. The terms plain frieze, designating a frieze devoid of ornamentation, and frieze-piece or frieze-panel, are used to designate one of the parte of which a frieze is constructed. (Fig. 75.)

Terms and Definitions. 11

120. Arch. The curved top of an opening in a wall. The arch of masonry is constructed of separate blocks and is supported only at the extremities. The joint, lines between the blocks are disposed in the direction of radii of the curve, thus enabling the arch to support the weight of the wall above the opening. When in classical designs its face is finished with moldings their proper profile is that of an architrave. (Fig. 75.) The level lines at which the curve of the arch begins are called the springing lines. Sometimes the lower stones of the arch rise vertically a short distance from the supports before the springing lines are reached, in which case the arch is said to be stilted.

Fig. 76.   A Semicircular Arch.

Fig. 76. - A Semicircular Arch.

Fig. 77.   A Pointed Arch.

Fig. 77. - A Pointed Arch.

Fig. 80.   A Pilaster.

Fig. 80. - A Pilaster.

Fig. 78.   A Moresque Arch.

Fig. 78. - A Moresque Arch.

Fig. 79.   A Flat Arch.

Fig. 79. - A Flat Arch.

Fig. 81.   An Angular Pediment.

Fig. 81. - An Angular Pediment.

Fig. 82.   A Segmental Pediment.

Fig. 82. - A Segmental Pediment.

The stones composing the arch are called the voussoirs, and the middle or top stone is called the keystone. The supports below the ends of the arch are called imposts.

Arches are usually semicircular (Fig. 76), semi-elliptical, segmental, pointed (Fig. 77) or Moresque (horseshoe) (Fig. 78) in shape, according to the style of architecture with which they are used.

The top of an opening may be perfectly level and yet composed of wedge-shaped blocks so combined as to be self-supporting, in which case it is called a flat arch. (Fig. 79.)

121. A Column is a vertical shaft or pillar round in plan, designed as a support for an entablature. It consists of three parts: a base, a shaft and a capital.

122. An Engaged Column is a column placed against the face of a wall or other surface, from which it projects one-half or more than one-half its diameter.

123. A Pilaster differs from a column in that it is square in plan instead of round and is usually engaged within a wall. (Fig. 80.)

124. Pedastal. A structure designed to support a column, statue, vase or other object. It is by some described as the foot of a column, but is, properly speaking, not a part of it. It consists of three parts, a base, a middle portion cubical in shape called a die and a cap or cornice. It is also used as a finish at the ends of a balustrade course.

Fig. 83.   A Broken Pediment.

Fig. 83. - A Broken Pediment.

125. A Pediment is a triangular or segmental ornamental facing over a portico, door, window, etc. (Figs. 81, 82 and 83.

120. A Broken Pediment is one, either in the form of a gable or a segment, which is cut away in its central portion for the purpose of ornamentation. (Fig. 83.)

127. A Gable is the vertical triangular end of a house or other building, from the cornice or eaves to the top.

128. A Lintel Cornice is a cornice above or sometimes including a lintel. This term is very generally used to designate the cornice used above the first story of stores. (Fig. 84.)