The Plan for Studying Your Samples. - You have learned that one way in which materials differ depends on the fiber from which cloth is made. A second way in which materials differ is according to the manner of construction. Cloth may be made by weaving it on a loom or by knitting it. Your samples have been sorted according to the fibers from which the materials were made. Put all your samples together again and begin resorting them according to the way the cloth is made. Some of them will be knitted and some woven. Among those that are woven you will find four or five different kinds of weaves. You will notice that the same weave may be used for silk, linen, wool or cotton. Knitted Materials. - The girls that lived in the Middle Ages did not have the kind of stockings or underwear to wear that you have. Their stockings were made of woven cloth like their dresses and underwear. Soon after this period of history some one discovered how to make knitted stockings which have been worn ever since. Would it not seem queer to make your stockings from cloth as you did your kimono or nightgown? The picture in Fig. 86 shows a piece of knitting in which one thread has been broken. Can you see what will happen if the broken ends begin to slip. This is what happens when you break a thread in your stocking. The broken threads slip through the first loop, then each loop slips through the next loop, making what we call a "run" in the stocking. If a thread in a woven piece of cloth breaks as shown in Fig. 87 no "run" occurs because there are no loops to slip through each other. In the woven cloth there are two sets of threads which cross each other. The knitted cloth is made from one thread by continually catching one loop through another. Examine a stocking or a piece of knitted material under a magnifying glass and you will see this clearly. If you have watched some one knitting you have seen the thread pulled through the loop by the point of the needle. All the stockings you wear are made by machine but the process of pulling the thread through a loop is exactly the same as when done by hand. Generally it takes two or three days to knit a pair of socks by hand while one person can produce many hundred pairs of socks in one day on the knitting machine.

Fig. 86.

How Cloth Is Made Woven And Knitted 186

Fig. 87.

How Cloth Is Made Woven And Knitted 187

There are two ways you can always recognize knitted material. First, you can always see the loops and second you can tell by stretching the material. Knitted fabric is elastic and will draw back into shape after being stretched. Since knitted fabric is elastic it will fit the body more closely and smoothly than the woven material. Can you see why our stockings and some of our underwear are knitted rather than woven? Do you have any samples of other knitted materials? Do you know the names of any dress materials that are knitted? The Plain Weave. - Probably your pile of samples made with the plain weave will be your largest group because the plain weave is used more than any other weave. See Fig. 87. Among these samples you will be able to find cotton underwear materials, muslin and longcloth, linen handkerchiefs and linen dress material, wool flannel and silk ribbons. Why is it that the plain weave is always used for handkerchiefs and for underwear material?

Sometimes the plain weave is purposely woven so that there are open spaces between the threads. Voile is a material that is woven in this way. What other materials do you have samples of that are woven openly?

You will find a modification of the plain weave in your samples of dimity and poplin. How does the effect in these materials differ from that in the ordinary plain weave? Can you see how the ribs are produced in the weaving?

The Twill Weave.Many of your samples will be made with the twill weave, see Fig. 45, as it is more used than any of the weaves with the exception of the plain weave. You will probably have samples of serge, Poiret twill, gabardine, galatea, denim and khaki. Compare these samples with your samples of underwear materials made from the plain weave and decide why the twill weave is not satisfactory for underwear material. Why would the twill weave not be suitable for a handkerchief or towel or sheet? You will notice that the twill weave is always used in materials where hard wear and durability are desirable. Does the twill weave or the plain weave have more feeling of hardness and stiffness? List the different kinds of materials made from the twill weave.

The Satin Weave.Among your samples of materials made from the satin weave you will find pieces of satin ribbon and sateen. See Fig. 45. These materials have their smooth and lustrous effect because of the weave. This is true because the long threads on the top of the cloth give a surface unbroken by the crossing of threads. Examine the right and wrong sides of a piece of satin to see how the texture differs. When the floats of thread are too long the satin will not wear well because the long floats are likely to catch and break. Firmly woven satin is not only more durable than a thin, sleazy weave but is more beautiful in appearance. This weave is not considered as durable as the twill or plain weave. Why?

The Pile Weave. - Your samples of Turkish toweling and velvet are examples of the pile weave. If you have studied about rugs you will remember how the pile weave is made. The pile in velvet stands up like the bristles in a hair brush. Can you think of anything else to compare with the pile weave? Compare the pile in the Turkish toweling and in the velvet to see how they differ. Why do you think the pile weave instead of the satin weave is used in the Turkish towel? Why would the satin weave not be suitable for rugs? Can you think of words to describe the appearance and feeling of velvet? Have you any samples of coat materials that are made with the pile weave?

Pattern Weaving. - Some of your samples of napkins, toweling and ribbons may be made with patterns that are woven into the material. If you examine these samples closely you may find that parts of the pattern are made with the plain weave and other parts with the satin weave. Pattern weaving is a very complicated process, done on a special kind of loom called the Jacquard loom. What materials can you think of that are used for curtains or for upholstering furniture that are made with the pattern weave? How can you tell when the pattern is woven and when it is printed on the material?.

More Pages for Your Notebook. - Select samples of each of the weaves discussed above and mount them in your notebook. List as many materials as you know that are made with each of these weaves. Write a brief paragraph about each weave telling why it is suitable for certain purposes.

Crossword Puzzles from Names of Fabrics. - Now that you have learned the names of many kinds of textile fabrics you may be interested in making up a crossword puzzle like the one on page 106. Each girl might try making one and see if the other girls in the class can work it.