This section is from the book "School Needlework. A Course of Study in Sewing designed for use in Schools", by Olive C. Hapgood. Also available from Amazon: School Needlework: A Course Of Study In Sewing Designed For Use In Schools.
Scissors are of many sizes. Large scissors are called shears (Fig. 2, c), and small scissors with the ends of the blades rounded are called pocket scissors (Fig. 2, d), as they are convenient to carry in the pocket. In shears, the round bow is for the thumb, and the oval bow is for two of the fingers; one blade is more pointed than the other, and when cutting this blade should be held down
Fig. 2. - a, Showing ladies' scissors; b, button-hole scissors; c, shears; d, pocket scissors, ward. In button-hole scissors (Fig. 2, b) a screw is attached to regulate the size of the button-hole. When passing scissors, hand the bows to the person, keeping the point towards yourself.
In order to cut straight, draw out a thread of the cloth, and cut along the line thus made (for drawing a thread, see page 116). In materials from which a thread cannot be easily drawn, fold the cloth where it is to be cut, pin the selvedges together on each side, crease, and cut on the crease. In materials in which the threads are plainly marked, either by plaids or stripes, there is no need of drawing a thread or folding the cloth.
Fig. 3. - Showing a bias cut.
Fig. 4. - Showing an exact bias cut.
To cut bias, cut on a slanting line across both the warp and the woof.
To cut an exact bias, lay the selvedge or a warp thread of the cloth, on a line with a woof thread, and cut on the fold.
What is a pair of scissors? Name the different kinds of scissors. How should shears be held? How can cloth be cut straight? How can it be cut when a thread is not easily drawn? How is an exact bias cut?