This section is from the "The Ladies' Work-Table Book: Domestic Needlework in Nineteenth-Century America" book, by Margaret Vincent. Also available from Amazon: The Ladies' Work Table: Domestic Needlework in Nineteenth-Century America.
This is done in double knitting stitch, with six threads fleecy. The pieces are six inches square. Each square consists of about 24 stitches, and they are to be sewn together with a tuft of wool, black or white, at each corner. The square should be knitted in at least three colors, including white; in a quilt one yard and a half square, there will be 225 pieces, 113 of which should be white. Make the tufts as follows: wind four-thread fleecy about 12 times round a grooved wooden mesh, one inch in width: then slip a coarse thread in the groove, and tie the wool quite tight, but taking care that an end is left to it, which can be drawn through and fastened to the quilt. The loops of wool are to be cut through on the other side of the mesh; after which it is to be combed and dressed as neatly as possible.
Pattern for a Light Scarf - Cast on the number of stitches required upon No. 18 needles, and any kind of material you choose; three-threads fleecy is generaly preferred. Knit one plain stitch, then two together, and so on alternately, to the end of the row : each succeeding one is but a repetition of the first: it may be done in stripes, with various colors.
For these you will require four needles. On three of these cast on an equal number of stitches, according to the size required, and knit each round three pearl and three plain: finish with one plain and two pearl rows.
Cast on first size 73, second 85, third 91, fourth 99, fifth 109, sixth 133. Then knit rounds to the commencement of the narrowings, 40, 52, 54, 56, 60, and 74, respectively, according to the sizes given above. The narrowings in the leg are according to the size, 8, 10, 12, 13, 14, and 21. After which you knit 18, 20, 25, 27, 30, or 45 rounds to the heel, which is to be formed in the following manner. The stitches are to be divided in half, taking care to have the seam stitch for the middle, and the heel is to be knitted in alternate turns of plain and pearled stitches. The length, of course, varies in proportion to the size, being 12 turns for the first and second, 13 for the third, 14 for the fourth, 15 for the fifth, and 20 for the sixth. The heel is finished by knitting the nine middle stitches in rows, the same as the heel, and taking up one of the others with the last loop of each row, till all is taken off There will thus be nine stitches when the heel is finished. Having got thus far, you proceed to form the foot as follows. You take up sixteen on each side of the heel, in the second row, and taking them up, you make a seam on each side of the instep, knitting another stitch in the loop under the first and last, which prevents holes in the corners, that would otherwise occur. Then narrow every second round on the heel sides of the seam until the number of stitches are the same as those in the instep, or what is commonly called the fore foot needle. You will have for the instep 28, 32, 34, 40, or 46, as the case may be ; and the rounds between the heel and toe narrow-ings, will be 14, 18, 23, 26, 30, and 34, respectively; and the narrowings for the feet will be 6, 8, 8, 8, 9, and 10, on each side, according to the measurement given. You begin the toe by narrowing double at the seams, leaving only the seam stitch between, and narrowing twice with three, and twice with two rounds left between each narrowing: then narrow twice, leaving but one round between, and then every round until sixteen stitches only are left. Finish by putting the two needles having stitches on them together. And when two stitches are done in this manner, cast them off, the first over the last, until the whole is taken off the needles. It should be noted, that the stitches in the heel vary with the size of the stocking, and are as follows: first size 29, second 33, third 33, fourth 37, fifth 41, and sixth 45.
Some workers take off the heel, in the same manner as the toe is here directed to be finished.
On each needle cast on 52 stitches with fine cotton, knit the welts and raise one stitch for the seam. When you arrive at the narrowings, narrow every eighth row, and when you have 38 stitches on each needle, cease, and knit until the article is completed; then take half the stitches to form the heel, knit 23 loops, and narrow on each side of the seam for three rows. In forming the heel, narrow every row once the fourth loop from the seam, and then the loops must be taken up, the end one as close as possible. Take three stitches from each side of the fore foot needle to the other, and knit a round plain; after which, widen every fifth stitch on both sides of the heel. Alternate rows of the heel needles are then to be narrowed until only 36 loops remain on each. The stitches to be narrowed are the fifth and sixth from the ends. Knit the feet of a proper length, and then narrow at the ends of the needles every other row, until only ten remain on each; narrow every row until you have only three, which you cast off in the usual manner. The open pattern is produced by knitting every fifth round thus: take two stitches in one, and bring the cotton in front of the needle, that it may form a stitch before taking the succeeding two into one. The more open you desire the work to be, the fewer stitches and the finer needles you will require.