Fresenius defines it thus: "Every operation, or process, whereby bodies are made to pass from the fluid to the solid state, and to assume certain fixed, mathematically definable, regular forms." It would be folly for me to attempt to criticise Fresenius, but I give you both definitions, and you can take your choice. The definition of Fresenius, however, will not suit our present purpose, because the crystallization of wrought iron occurs, or seems to, after the iron has acquired a solid state.

Iron, as you all know, is known to the arts in three forms: cast or crude, steel, and wrought or malleable. Cast iron varies much in chemical composition, being a mixture of iron and carbon chiefly, as constant factors, with which silicium in small quantities (from 1 to 5 per cent.), phosphorus, sulphur, and sometimes manganese (e.g. spiegeleisen) and various other elements are combined. All of these have some effect upon the crystalline structure of the mass, but whatever crystallization takes place occurs at the moment of solidification, or between that and a red heat, and varies much, according to the time occupied in cooling, as to its composition. My own experience leads me to think that a cast iron having about 3 per cent. of carbon, a small per centage of phosphorus, say about ½ of 1 per cent., and very small quantities of silicium, the less the better, and traces of manganese (the two latter substances slagging out almost entirely during the process of remelting for casting), makes a metal best adapted to the general use of the founder. Such proportions will make a soft, even grained, dark gray iron, whose crystals are small and bright, and whose fracture will be uneven and sharp to the touch. The phosphorus in this instance gives the metal liquidity at a low temperature, but does not seem to influence the crystallization to any appreciable extent. The two elements to be avoided by the founder are silicium and sulphur. These give to iron a peculiar crystalline appearance easily recognized by an experienced person. Silicium seems to obliterate the sparkling brilliancy of the crystalline faces of good iron, and replace them with very fine dull ones only discernible with a lens, and the iron breaks more like stoneware than metal, while sulphur in appreciable quantities gives a striated crystalline texture similar to chilled iron, and very brittle. Phosphorus in very large quantities acts similarly. The form of the crystal in cast iron is the octahedron, so that right angles with sharp corners should be avoided as much as possible in castings, as the most likely position for a crystal to take would be with its faces along the line of the angle. Steel, to be of any value as such, must be made of the purest material. Phosphorus and sulphur must not exist, except in the most minute quantities, or the metal is worthless. If either of these substances be present in a bar of steel, its structure will be coarse, crystalline and weak. The reason of this is unknown, but probably their presence reduces the power of cohesion; and, that being reduced, gives the molecules of steel greater freedom to arrange themselves in conformity with their polarity, and this in its turn again weakens the mass by the tendency of the crystals to cleavage in certain directions. Carbon is a constant element in steel, as it is in cast iron, but is frequently replaced by chromium, titanium, etc., or is said to be, though it is not quite clear to me how it can be so if steel is a chemical compound. However this may be, we know that a piece of good soft steel breaks with a fine crystalline fracture, and the same piece hardened when broken shows either an amorphous structure or one very finely crystalline, which would indicate that the crystals had been broken up by the action of heat, and that they had not had sufficient time to return to their original position on account of the sudden cooling. The tendency of the molecules of steel after hardening to assume their natural position when cold seems to be very great, for we have often seen large pieces of steel burst asunder after hardening, though lying untouched, and sometimes with such force as to hurl the fragments to some distance. If a piece of steel be subjected to a bright yellow or white heat its nature is entirely changed, and the workman says it is burnt. Though this is not actually a fact, it does well enough to express that condition of the metal. Steel cannot be burnt unless some portion of it has been oxidized. The carbon would of course be attacked first, its affinity for oxygen being greatest; but we find nothing wanting in a piece of burnt steel. It can, by careful heating, hammering and hardening, be returned to its former excellence. Then what change has taken place? I should say that two modifications have been made, one physical, the other chemical. The change chemically is that of a chemical compound to a mixture of carbon and iron, so that in a chemical sense it resembles cast iron. The change physically is that of crystallization, being due partly to chemical change and partly to the effect of heat. I have procured a specimen of steel showing beautifully the effect of overheating. The specimen is labeled No. 1, and is a piece of Park Brothers' steel (one of the best brands made in America). It has been heated at one end to proper heat for hardening, and at the other is what is technically called "burnt." It has been broken at intervals of about 1½ inches, showing the transition from amorphous or proper hardening to highly crystalline or "burnt." Malleable or wrought iron is or should be pure iron. Of course in practice it is seldom such, but generally nearly so, being usually 98, 99, or even more per cent. It is exceedingly prone to crystallization, the purer varieties being as much subject to it as others, except those contaminated with phosphorus, which affects it similarly with steel, and makes it very weak to cross and tensile strains. I have never estimated the quantity present in any except one specimen, a bar of 1½ round, which literally fell to pieces when dropped across a block of iron. It had 1.32 per cent. of phosphorus and was very crystalline, though the crystals were not very large. Iron which has been, when first made, quite fibrous, when subjected to a series of shocks for a greater or less period, according to their intensity, when subjected to intense currents of electricity, or when subjected to high temperatures, or has by mechanical force been pushed together, or, as it is called, upset, becomes extremely crystalline. Under all of these circumstances it is subjected to one physical phenomenon, that of motion. It would seem that if a bar of iron were struck, the blow would shake the whole mass, and consequently the relative position of the particles remain unchanged, but this is not the case. When the blow is struck it takes an appreciable length of time for the effect to be communicated to the other end so as to be heard, if the distance is great. This shows that a small force is communicated from particle to particle independently along the whole mass, and that each atom actually moves independently of its neighbor. Then, if there be any attraction at the time tending to arrange it differently, it will conform to it. So much for theory with regard to this important matter. It looks well on paper, but do the facts of the case correspond? If practically demonstrated and systematically executed, experiments fail to corroborate the theory, and if, furthermore, we find there is no necessity for the theory, we naturally conclude that it is all wrong, or, at least, imperfectly understood. Now there is one other quality imparted to iron by successive shocks, which, I think, is independent of crystallization, and this quality is hardness and consequent brittleness. One noticeable feature about this also is, that as "absolute cohesion" or tensile strength diminishes, "relative cohesion" or strength to resist crushing increases. Specimens Nos. 2, 3, and 4 are pieces of Swedish iron, probably from the celebrated mines of Dannemora. Nos. 2 and 3 are parts of the same bolt, which, after some months' use on a "heading machine" in a bolt and nut works, where it was subjected to numerous and violent shocks, (perhaps 50,000 or 60,000 per day), it broke short off, as you see in No 2, showing a highly crystalline fracture. To test whether this structure continued through the bolt, I had it nicked by a blacksmith's cold chisel and broken. The specimen shows that it is still stronger at that point than at the point where it is actually broken, but the resulting fracture shows the same crystalline appearance. I next had specimen No. 4 cut from a fresh bar of iron which had never been used for anything. It also shows a crystalline fracture, indicating that this peculiarity had existed in the iron of both from the beginning.

I next took specimen No. 3 and subjected it to a careful annealing, taking perhaps two hours in the operation. Although it is a 1-1/8 bolt and has V threads cut upon it we were unable to break it, although bent cold through an arc of 90°, and probably would have doubled upon itself if we had had the means to have forced it. Now what does this show? Have the crystals been obliterated by the process of annealing, or has only their cleavage been destroyed, so that when they break, instead of showing brilliant, sparkling faces, they are drawn into a fibrous looking mass? The latter seems to be the most plausible theory, to which I admit objections may be raised. For my own part, I am inclined to the belief that the crystal exists in all iron which is finished above a bright red heat, and that between that and black heat they are formed and have whatever characteristics circumstances may confer upon them, modified by the action of agencies heretofore mentioned.

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