Fig. 9.

The next point to be studied is the magnetic property of a single loop of the wire through which an electric current flows. Fig. 9 represents a single voltaic cell containing the usual plates of zinc and copper dipping into acid to generate a current in the old-fashioned way. This current flows from the zinc plate through the liquid to the copper plate, and from thence it flows round the wire ring or circuit back to the zinc plate. Here the lines of magnetic force in the surrounding space are no longer only whirls like those drawn in Fig. 4 and 6, for they react on one another and become nearly parallel where they pass through the middle of the ring. The thick arrows show the direction of the electric current, the fine arrows are the lines of magnetic force, and show the paths along which a free north pole would be urged. All the front face, where the arrow-heads are, will be like the north pole of a magnet. All the other face of the ring will be like the south pole of a magnet. Our ring resembles a flat magnet, one face all north pole the other face all south pole. Such a magnet is sometimes called a "magnetic shell."[1]

[Footnote 1: The rule for telling which face of the magnetic shell (or of the loop circuit) is north and which south in its magnetic properties is the following: If as you look at the circuit the current is flowing in the same apparent direction as the hands of a clock move, then the face you are looking at is a south pole. If the current flows the opposite way round to the hands of a clock, then it is the north pole face that you are looking at.]

Since the circuit through which the current is flowing has these magnetic properties, it can attract other magnets or repel them according to circumstances.

Fig. 10.

If a magnet be placed near the circuit, so that its north pole, N, is opposite that side of the circuit which acts as a south pole, the magnet and the circuit will attract one another. The lines of force that radiate from the end of the magnet, curve round and coalesce with some of those of the circuit. It was shown by the late Professor Clerk-Maxwell, that every portion of a circuit is acted upon by a force urging it in such a direction as to make it inclose within its embrace the greatest possible number of lines of force. This proposition, which has been termed "Maxwell's Rule," is very important, because it can be so readily applied to so many cases, and will enable one so easily to think out the actual reaction in any particular case. The rule is illustrated by the sketch shown in Fig. 10, where a bar magnet has been placed with its north pole opposite the south face of the circuit of the cell. The lines of force of the magnet are drawn into the ring and coalesce with those due to the current. According to Faraday's mode of regarding the actions in the magnetic field there is a tendency for the lines of force to shorten themselves. This would occur if either the magnet were pulled into the circuit, or the circuit were moved up toward the magnet. Each attracts the other, and whichever of them is free to move will move in obedience to the attraction. And the motion will in either case be such as to increase the total number of lines of force that pass through the circuit. Lest it should be thought that Fig. 10 is fanciful or overdrawn, we reproduce an actual magnetic "field" made in the manner described in the preceding article. Fig. 11 is a kind of sectional view of Fig. 10, the circuit being represented merely by two circular spots or holes above and below the middle line, the current flowing toward the spectator through the lower spot, and passing in front of the figure to the upper hole, where it flows down. Into this circuit the pole, N, is attracted, the tendency being to draw as many lines of force as possible into the embrace of the circuit.

Fig. 11.

So far as the reasoning about these mutual actions of magnets and currents is concerned, it would therefore appear that the lines of force are the really important feature to be understood and studied. All our reasons about the attractions of magnets could be equally well thought out if there were no corporeal magnets there at all, only collections of lines of force. Bars of iron and steel may be regarded as convenient conductors of the lines of force; and the poles of magnets are simply the places where the lines of force run out of the metal into the air or vice versa. Electric currents also may be reasoned about, and their magnetic actions foretold quite irrespective of the copper wire that acts as a conductor; for here there are not even any poles; the lines of force or magnetic whirls are wholly outside the metal. There is an important difference, however, to be observed between the case of the lines of force of the current, and that of the lines of force of the magnet. The lines of force of the magnet are the magnet so far as magnetic forces are concerned; for a piece of soft iron laid along the lines of force thereby becomes a magnet and remains a magnet as long as the lines of force pass through it. But the lines of force crossing through a circuit are not the same thing as the current of electricity that flows round the circuit. You may take a I loop of wire and put the poles of magnets on each side of it so that the lines of force pass through in great numbers from one face to the other, but if you have them there even for months and years the mere presence of these lines of force will not create an electric current even of the feeblest kind. There must be motion to induce a current of electricity to flow in a wire circuit.