Table A.

Industries. Massachusetts. Great Britain. Total

Agricultural implements 4 1 5

Artisans' tools 3 4 7

Boots and shoes 18 2 20

Brick 3 1 4

Building trades 32 24 56

Carpetings 1 1 2

Carriages and Wagons 11 3 14

Clothing 10 4 14

Cotton goods 10 9 19

Flax and jute goods 2 3 5

Food preparations 5 2 7

Furniture 11 1 12

Glass 1 3 4

Hats (fur wool and silk) 3 2 5

Hosiery 5 3 8

Liquors (malt and distilled) 10 1 11

Machines and machinery 12 15 27

Metals and metallic goods 25 13 38

Printing and publishing 12 7 19

Printing, dyeing and bleaching etc 3 4 7

Stone 10 1 11

Wooden goods 12 1 13

Woolen goods 4 2 6

Worsted goods 3 3 6

210 110 320 

Thirty-two cities in Massachusetts, and twenty-six in Great Britain, were visited in search of returns, of which almost all our great industrial centers yield their quota.

It being, of course, impossible to obtain wage returns for all the employes of these various industries in either country, the investigation aimed at covering at least 10 per cent. of such totals, and, in the case of Massachusetts, succeeded in getting returns for 36,000 hands, or 13 per cent. of the whole number of artisans employed in the twenty-four industries examined. Great Britain, on the other hand, made returns for about half that number of hands, but their proportion to the totals employed cannot be similarly stated, first, because we have here no specific industrial census, and, second, because many of the English returns were made for an indefinite number of employes.

The comparison was made in the following way: For each of the twenty-four industries, a table, consisting of four sections, was constructed, viz., "Occupation," "Aggregation," "Recapitulation," and "Comparison." The first gave the names of the various branches of each industry, classifying these as minutely as possible, because the names indicating subdivisions of labor are, generally, so different in the two countries that the actual "matching" of occupations, desirable for a perfect comparison, is impossible. The second, or "Aggregation" section, brings the various occupations in the same industry into juxtaposition, and supplies opportunities for direct comparison. The third, or "Recapitulation" section, is drawn from the "Occupation" section, and shows the number of men, women, young persons, and children for whom wages are given; whether these are paid by the day, or by piece; and whether the wage returns show the actual amounts paid to a definite number of employes, or an average wage for a definite or an indefinite number of employes.

The fourth, or "Comparison" section, brings the highest, lowest, and general average weekly wages into final comparison.

The first three sections of the table, being either simply enumerative or collective in character, are easily understood without illustration, but an example of the "Comparative" section, marked Table B, hangs on the wall, and shows all the final comparisons at a glance.

 Table B.

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| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4

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Classification. |Massac- | Great | Massac- | Great

|husetts.| Britain.| husetts.| Britain.

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Average highest weekly | dols. | dols. | dols. | dols.

wage paid to - - | | | |

Men | 37.00 | 13.39 | 25.41 | 11.36

Women | 5.50 | ... | 8.57 | 4.10

Young persons | 7.00 | 3.65 | 6.94 | 3.04

Children | 5.70 | ... | 4.64 | 1.05

| | | |

Average lowest weekly wage | | | |

paid to - - | | | |

Men | 7.60 | 3.21 | 7.09 | 4.72

Women | 5.00 | ... | 4.62 | 2.27

Young women | 4.50 | 1.46 | 4.26 | 1.66

Children | 3.00 | ... | 3.09 | .60

| | | |

Average weekly wages | | | |

paid to - - | | | |

Men | 12.04 | 8.07 | 11.85 | 8.26

Women | 5.12 | ... | 6.09 | 3.37

Young persons | 5.76 | 2.52 | 5.10 | 2.40

Children - - | 5.31 | ... | 3.81 | .79

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General average weekly wage | | | |

paid to all employes | 11.75 | 8.07 | 10.32 | 6.96

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Result: General average | |

weekly wages higher in | 45.60 | 48.28

Massachusetts by per cent | per cent. | per cent.

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The two first columns of the table are simply illustrative of the method applied to a single industry, exhibiting the highest average, lowest average, and average weekly wages, whether to men, women, young persons, or children, in the particular business of "machine-making," together with the general average wages paid to all the employes in such industry. The general average weekly wages in this industry are thus shown to be 45.6 per cent. higher in Massachusetts than in Great Britain.

The 3d and 4th columns of the table consolidate all the twenty-four industries, and yield, in similar terms, as in the case of machine-making, an average comparison applying to the whole group of industries under examination, giving, as a grand result, that the general average weekly wages of Massachusetts are higher by 48.28 per cent. than those of Great Britain.

It is, however, explained that the British wage returns were made in three different ways, viz., for a definite number of employes, by percentage returns, and by general returns; both of the latter being for an indefinite number of employes. Where more than one wage-basis was given, the highest figure was used in the calculations, and, this being the case in eighteen out of the twenty-four industries, its effects on the grand result are considerable; for, by crediting Great Britain with the average instead of the high weekly wage, the average percentage in favor of Massachusetts rises from 48.28 per cent. to 75.94 per cent.

In order truly to indicate the higher percentage of average weekly wages in Massachusetts, we must, therefore, agree upon a figure somewhere between these two extremes, viz., that of 48.28 per cent., derived from tables in which Great Britain is credited with the high wage, and that of 75.94 per cent., derived from those tables in which she is credited with the average of the returns made upon the different bases. The mean of these figures is 62.11 per cent., which is considered to be the result of the investigation, and may be formulated as follows: The general average weekly wages paid to employes in twenty-four manufacturing industries common to Massachusetts and Great Britain is 62 per cent., higher in the former than the general average weekly wages paid in the same industries in the latter country.