By C.M. VORCE, F.R.M.S.

I. Formulas For Printing Solutions

Blue Prints

The best formula for this process, of many that I have tried, is that furnished by Prof. C.H. Kain, of Camden, N.J., in which the quantity of ammonio-citrate of iron is exactly double that of the red prussiate of potash, and the solutions strong. This gives strong prints of a bright dark blue, and prints very quickly in clear sunlight.

Dissolve six grains of red prussiate of potash in one drm. of distilled water; in another drm. of distilled water dissolve twelve grains of ammonio-citrate of iron. Mix the two solutions in a cup or saucer, and at once brush over the surface of clean strong paper. Cover the surface thoroughly, but apply no more than the paper will take up at once; it should become limp and moist, but not wet. The above quantity of solution, two drms., will suffice to sensitize ten square feet of paper, or three sheets of the "regular" size of plain paper, 18×22. As fast as the sheets are washed over with the solution, hang them up to dry by one corner. The surplus fluid will collect in a drop at the lower corner, and can be blotted off.

Black Prints

Wash the paper with a saturated solution of bichromate of potash, made quite acid with acetic acid. After printing, wash the prints in running water for twenty to thirty minutes, then float them face down on a weak solution (five to ten per cent.) of protosulphate of iron for five minutes, and wash as before. If preferred, the iron solution may be washed over the prints, or they may be immersed in it, but floating seems preferable. After the second washing, wash the prints over with a strong solution of pyrogallic acid, when the print will develop black, and the ground, if the washings were sufficient, will remain white. A final washing completes the process.

If a solution of yellow prussiate of potash be used in place of the pyro solution, a blue print is obtained. Bichromate prints can be made on albumenized paper by floating it on the solution, and by using a saturated solution of protosulphate of iron and a saturated solution of gallic acid. Very fine prints can be so produced nearly equal to silver prints, and at somewhat less cost, but with a little or no saving of time or labor.

Chief Proof Solution

If old oxalate developer be exposed in a shallow vessel in a warm place, a deposit of light green crystals will be formed, composed of an impure oxalate of iron. If these crystals be dissolved in water, and paper washed with a strong solution, when dry it may be exposed in the printing-frame, giving full time. The image is very faint, but on washing in or floating on a moderately strong solution of red prussiate of potash for a minute or less, a blue positive is produced, which is washed in water as usual to fix it. The unused developer produces the best crystals for the purpose, and the pure ammonio-oxalate is vastly better than either.

All of the above operations, except the printing, should be carried on in the dark room, or by lamp or gas light only. The solutions and the paper should also be kept in the dark, and prepared as short a time as possible before use.

II. Compound Negatives

In photographing with the microscope, it frequently occurs that the operator, instead of devoting a negative to each of two or more similar objects for comparison, printing both upon the same print, prefers to have the whole series upon one negative, and taking from this a single print. There is often room for two or more images upon the same plate. If the center of the plate is devoted to one, obviously no more can be accommodated on it, but by placing one at each end, or one on each quarter of the plate, both economy of plates and convenience of printing are secured. The end may be readily accomplished by matting the plate as a negative is matted in printing.

Suppose it be desired to photograph four different species of acari on one plate, the image of each when magnified to the desired extent only covering about one-fourth the exposed area of the plate. First, a mat is prepared of card-board or thick non-actinic paper, which is adjusted to exactly fill the opening of the plate holder, lying in front of and close against the plate when exposed, and having one-quarter very exactly cut out. A convenient way to fit this mat is to leave projecting lugs on each side at exactly the same distance from the ends, and cut notches in the plate-holder into which the lugs may closely fit. If this work is carefully done, the mat may be reversed both sidewise and endwise, and the lugs will fit the notches; if so, it is ready for use. The object being focused upon the focusing glass or card, the camera is raised one-half the vertical dimension of the plate and displaced to one side half the horizontal dimension, when the image will be found to occupy one-quarter of the plate. The mat being placed in the plate holder, a focusing glass is inserted in the position the plate will occupy, and final adjustment and focusing made.

The plate is then marked on one corner on the film side with a lead pencil, placed in the holder without disturbing the mat, and the exposure made. When the plate is replaced for a second exposure, either the mat is reversed or the plate turned end for end; but it is best to always place the plate in the holder in the same position and change the mat to expose successive quarters, but this requires the camera to be moved for each exposure.

With similar objects, and some judgment in making two exposures, negatives may be made with almost exactly the same density in each quarter, and by cutting out slightly less than one-quarter of the mat the four images will be separated by black lines in the print; by cutting out a trifle more than the exact quarter, they will be separated by white lines instead of black.