76 C. Backii Boott. (t. 97.) Ped. radical, 1 - 4f high, stiff, thick, or large; spike single, with about 3 sterile fls. above; perig. ovate, globous, smooth throughout, 2 to 4, conic-rostrate, entire at the orifice, when mature pear-shaped, the beak articulated to the fruit; glumes usually long and leaf-like, inclosing the fruit; lvs. radical, flat, thick, rough or scabrous and short. - Jefferson Co., N. Y. and Arc. Am. - The two preceding species are closely related, and yet look very di!-ferent. The first (No. 74) is the slenderest.
77 C. squarrosa L. Spikes 1 - 4, oblong, cylindric, obtuse, upper one attenuated below at first by the decuirent flowers, all very densely flowered; perig. ovate, snbglobous, long-rostrate, 2-toothed, horizontal, glabrous and subsquarrous, longer than the lanceolate glume; cm. 1 - 2f, slender for the large spike or spikes; lower spikes pedunculate. - Large and fine. It is C. typhina Mx. when only one spike is present. - N. Eng. to I11. and southward.
β. (C. typhinoides Schw.) Spikes 2, the lower on a very long peduncle, and both longer and smaller.
78 C. scirpoidea Mx. Spike oblong, cylindric, acutish; glume oblong, ob-tusish; perig. ovate (oval), subrostrate, pubescent, longer titan the ovate, acutish, scarious dark purple glume; st. 4 - 10', erect: lvs. flat and long. - White Mts., N. H. (Oakes), Wiiloughby Mt., Vt. (Wood), Drummond's Isle, Mich, and northward (Carey).
79 C. Boottiana Benth. (B. t. 42.) Spikes oblong-cylindric, attenuate at base, with a scale-like bract; a spike on one culm and a spike (or 2) on another, sparse-flowered below; perig. oblong-obovate, hairy, apiculate, entire at orifice, pedicellate, veined, smaller than the oblong-obovate, short mucronale, dark purple, white-edged glume; culm 6 to 12' high, longer than the cauline, but shorter than the radical bright-green leaves. - La. (Drummond), Ala. (T. M. Peters). Curious and distinct, allied to C. Baltzellii.
80 C. virescens Muhl. (B. t. 72.) Spikes 2 - 4, oblong, erect, alternate, the lower subsessile, bracteate; upper spike very rarely wholly ; perig. ovate, obtuse, costate, pubescent, longer than the ovate, pubescent and mucronate glume, or about equal to it; st. 1 - 2f rather slender; lvs. towards the base. - Whole plant pubescent and light green.
β. costata Schw. Perig. strongly costate, outer sheaths purplish-brown; Ivs. numerous and larger. Both are common in open woods and hedges.
81 C. triceps Mx. (B. t. 117 in part). Spikes 3, short-ovate, erect, quite near, the upper short-peduncled, lowest leafy-bracted; perig. obovate, obtuse, roundish-triquetrous, pubescent when in flower, roughish, usually much longer than the cvate acute glume; culm 1 to 2f, triquetrous, scabrous above, with shorter, sub-radical, scabrous lvs. - N. Car. (Curtis) to Fia. and Ala. Differs considerably from the following, although the two are united by Boott.
82 C. hirsuta Willd. (Sehk., fig. 172.) Spikes 3, short-oblong, thick, alternate, erect, rather near, upper subsessile, lowest pedunculate, all dense-flowered; perig. ovate-triquetrous, obtusish, entire at the orifice, veined, very pubescent when young, rough and glabrous in maturity, longer than the ovate, acuminate, glabrous glumes; culm 12 to 18', stout, erect, scabrous above; lvs. and sheaths strongly scabro-pubescent, grayish green. - Moist upland meadows, Can. to Penn., and far West.
β. pedunculata (Torr.) Spikes oblong-cylindric, pedunculate; lvs. slightly pubescent; young glumes much longer than the perigynium.
γ. cuspidata. (Dew.) Glumes ovate, cuspidate, longer than the perig.; lvs., sheaths, and culm very hirsute. - Ill. (Vasey).
83 C. aestivalis Curtis. (B. t. 133.) Spikes 3 to 5, cylindric, slender, suberect, loose-flowered, bracteate; glumes oblong, rather obtuse at the base of the upper spike, lowest spike pedunculate; perig. elliptic, 3-sided, tapering at both ends, glabrous, entire at orifice, longer than the ovate, obtuse, often mucronate glume; culms in tufts, 16 to 24', slender, with flat, pubescent lvs., and leafy bracts. - Mts. of N. Car. (Curtis), also on Saddle Mt, Mass. (Dewey). Jl. Aug.
84 C. Shortiaua Dew. Spikes 4 or 5, long-cylindric, erect, dense-flowered, the highest half-staminate below, the others nearly all fertile, exsert-pedunculate; perig. obovate, obtuse, convex-compressed, tapering at base and subpedicellate, minutely apiculate, scarcely longer than the ovate, acute glume; culm 12 to 30', with long lvs.; plant strong and fine, bright green. - Marshes, Penn. to Ill. and farther South. A distinct and beautiful species.
85 C. oxylepis Torr. (B. t. 131.) Spikes 3 to 6, long-cylindric, erect, exsert-pe-duncled, bracteate, the lower remotish and loose-flowered at the base; perig. ob-long, subtriquetrous, glabrous, tapering at either end, 2-lobed or notched at orifice, a little longer than the ovate-oblong, cuspidate, white edged glume; culm 15', erect, rather slender, leafy, pale green; spikes rather dark. - Fla. (Chapman) to Tex. (Torr.)
86 C. Buxbaumii Wahl. Spikes about 4, short, cylindric, thick, upper one sometimes wholly , and sometimes above and below; pistiliferous oblong, subremote, subsessile, bracteate; perig. ovate-oblong, acutish, or obovate, obtuse, subtriquetrous, entire at the orifice, nerved and glabrous, scarcely equal to the oblong and mucronate glume; st. 10 - 18' high, leafy towards the base. - Common in wet grounds. It is described as sometimes having 2 stigmas in Europe, but placed by Schk., Wahl, etc, in the division having 3.