Trees with a colorless juice, alternate, deciduous leaves and stipules, with the flowers perfect, or abortively polygamous, in loose clusters, never in aments. Calyx subcampanulate, bearing the stamens opposite to its lobes, filaments straight, ovary free, 1 cr 2-celled, with two stigmas, forming in fruit a samara or a drupe. Seed suspended, with no albumen and leafy cotyledons. Fig. 46. E. 115, 437. Genera 9, species 60, native of the northern temperate zone.
Properties. - Astringent, mucilaginous, innoxious. The mucilaginous bark of the Slippery Elm (Ulmus fulva) is the only important medicinal product. Most of the Elms afford excellent timber.
I. UL'MUS, L. Elm. (The Latin name, from elm, Teutonic.) Flowers . Calyx campanulate, 4 to 8-cleft; stamens 4 to 8; styles 2; ovary compressed forming a flattened samara with a broad membranous border. - Trees, rarely shrubs. Lvs. scabrous, often abrupt at base. Fls. fasciculate or racemed, appearing before the lvs.
§ Samara ciliate-fringed with hairs, and on slender pedicels, (a)
a Flowers and fruit corymbous-umbellate. Branches not corky.................
a Flowers and fruit manifestly recemed. Branches corky.................................
Nos. 2, 3
§ Samara destitute of a fringe, subsessile or short pediceled...................................
Nos. 4 - 5
1 U. Americana L. White Elm. (Fig. 437.) Lvs. ovate, acuminate, serrute. often doubly so, unequal at base; fls. pedieeled in loose clusters; fr. oval, smooth except the densely ciliate margin, its 2 beaks with points incurved and meeting. - U. 8. and Can. A majestic tree, usually distinguished by its long pendulous branches. The trunk attains a diameter of 3 to 5f, loosing it3elf suddenly at top in 2 or more primary branches. These ascend, gradually spreading, and repeatedly dividing in broad, graceful curves, and affording a good example of the solvent axis (§ 174). It is a great favorite as a shade tree, and is frequently seen rearing its stately form and casting its deep shade over the "sweet homes" of N. Eng. April.
2 U. racemosa Thomas. Cork Elm. Branchlets downy, often with thick, corky ridges; lvs. ovate, acuminate, auriculale on one side; fls. in racemes; pedicels in distinct fascicles, united at their base, fruit ovate, elliptic, ciliate. - A tree found in low grounds, Meriden, N. H. to N. Y., and westward. The twigs and branches are remarkably distinguished by their numerous, corky, wing-like excrescences. Leaves 3 - 4' long, 2/3 as wide, produced into a rounded auricle on one side, doubly serrate, smooth above, veins and under surface minutely pubescent. Flowers pedicellate, 2 - 4 in each of the fascicles which are arranged in racemes. Calyx 7 - 8-cleft. Stamens 7 - 10. Stigmas recurved. Samara pubescent, the margin doubly fringed. Apr. - Much like No. 1, except its inflorescence and bark.
3 U. alata Mx. Winged Elm. Whahoo. Branches smooth, here and there winged with 2 corky ridges; lvs. oblong-lanceolate, small, acute, doubly serrate, all slightly unequal at base; fls. in racemes; cal. lobes obovate, obtuse; fruit downfall over, ciliate-fringed on the margin, beaks slender. - Common in the S. States. Tree with its branches more regularly cork-winged than in No. 2, its leaves much smaller (18 to 30" long) and subequal at base, the petioles only 1" long. (Fruit misrepresented in Michaux.)
4 U. fulva L. Slippery Elm. Red Elm. Branches rough; lvs. oblong-ovate, acuminate, nearly equal at base, unequally serrate, pubescent both sides, very rough; buds covered with fulvous down; fls. sessile; fr. nearly orbicular, scarcely ciliate. - Woods and low grounds, N. Eng. to Car. The Slippery Elm is much sought on account of the mucilage in the inner bark. Its diameter is 1 to 2f and height 20 to 40f. The lvs. are larger, thicker and rougher than those of the White Elm, and exhale a pleasant odor. Fls. collected at the ends of the young shoots. Cal. downy, sessile. Stam. short, reddish, 7 in number. Apr.
5 U. campestris L. English Elm. Lvs. (small) ovate, doubly serrate, unequal at base; lis. subsessile, densely clustered; sta. 5 - 8; cal. segments rounded, ebtuse; samara suborbicular, the border destitute of a fringe of hairs. - From Europe. Introduced and naturalized in the Eastern States to a small extent. It is a majestic tree, 50 - 70f high. The main trunk is usually excurrent (§ 173). Branches rigid and thrown off at a largo angle, foliage dense. In form it favors the Oak more than our native Elms. Many trees of this kind, in the vicinity of Boston, are particularly remarked in Emerson's Report, pp. 301, 302.
6 U. montana L. Scotch Elm. Wych Elm. Lvs. (large), obovate, cuspidate, doubly and coarsely serrate, cuneate and unequal at base, very scabrous above, evenly downy beneath; fr. subumbellate, rhombic-oblong; scarcely cloven, not ciliate. - Another European Elm often planted in our parks. It is a large tree, rather resembling our Slippery Elm than the White Elm.
7 U. crassifolia Nutt. With very small (1' long), thick, oval, obtuse lvs. grows in W. La., probably not E. of the Miss. It flowers in Sept. only. (Hale.,
2. PLA'NERA, Gmel. (In honor of John J. Planer, a German botanist.) Flowers monoecious-polygamous; calyx campanulate, 4 to 5-cleft; stamens 4 to 5; stigmas 2, oblong, diverging; fruit 1-celled, 1-seedcd, wingless, dry, nut-like, indehiscent. - Trees with the habit of Ulmus.
P. aquatica Gmel. Lvs. small, smooth, ovate, acute, serrate, equal at base; fls axillary, in clusters of 2 to 5; sig. plumous; nut roughened with scale-like points, - River swamps, N. Car. to Ga. A tree 30 to 40f high. Feb., Mar.
3. CEL'TIS, Tourn. Nettle Tree. Sugar-berry. (Celtis was the ancient name for the Lotus.) Flowers monecio-polygamous. Calyx 6-parted; stamens 6; calyx 5-parted; stamens 5; style 2; tigmas subulate, elongated, spreading; drupe globular, 1-seeded, seed with little albumen. - Trees or large shrubs. Lvs. mostly oblique at base. Fls. subsolitary, axillary.
1 C. occidentalis L. Trees; lvs. ovate, subcordate or truncate, acuminate, on tire and unequal at base, serrate, rough above, and rough-hairy beneath; peduncle longer than the petiole; sep. triangular-ovate, erect; fr. solitary. - Tree some 30f high in N. Eng. where it is rarely found, much larger (3 to 5fdiam., 50 to 70f high) and more abundant South and West. The trunk has a rough but unbroken bark, with numerous slender, horizontal branches, forming a wide-spread and dense top. Lvs. with a long acumination, and remarkably unequal at the broad base. Fls. axillary, solitary, small and white, succeeded by a small, round drupe.
β. crassifolia. Lvs. thick, rough, serrate, cordate, dark green and mottled above. Also a largo tree, tall in woods, wide-spread in open lands. Both are often mistaken for Elms.
γ. integrifolia. Lvs. entire, thin, smooth; bark smooth and unbroken. - Banks of the Miss., St. Louis, to N. Orleans. We have specimens with most of the lvs. perfectly entire, some on the same branch with 1 or 2 notches, others notched a fourth of the circuit, etc. (C. Mississippiensis Bose.)
2 C. pumila Ph. Shrub; lvs. broadly ovate, acute or slightly acuminate, partly serrate, smooth on both sides, pubescent only when young; fls. solitary; sep. mostly 6, oblong-linear, as long as the styles, horizontally spreading. - A. straggling shrub, 3 to 10f high, in hilly districts, Va. to Fla. (Chattahoochee). Flowering at the height of (2f Nutt) 6f. The peculiarity of the flower may perhaps entitle (his shrub to the rank of a species. Sep. near 2" long. Drupes glaucous black, sweet. Mar. - May.