β. recurvifolia. Somewhat caulescent; lvs. lance-linear or linear, recurved, rarely somewhat filamentous. (Y. recurvifolia Salisb. ?)
2 Y. gloriosa L. Caulescent, caudex some 3f high; lvs. erect, lanceolate, rigid, thick, subplicate, very acute, the margins very entire; perianth ovoid-campanu-late, segm. lanceolate. - Sandy sea-coasts, Car. to Fla. Caudex balf-shrubby, thick, simple, fleshy, strongly scarred below with the old leaf-stalks. Lvs. 12 to 13' long, 2 to 3' wide, clustered above. Panicle of racemes 2 to 3f long, erect from the summit of the caudex, with numerous cup-shaped, white, nodding flowers. Jn., Jl. †
3 Y. aloefolia Walt. Spanish Daggers. Caulescent: caudex some 10f high, often branched, naked and marked with leaf-scars below; lvs. densely clustered above, very rigid, thick, strict, deflexed when old, lanceolate, apex spinescent, margin rough-serrulate; segm. oblong, acutish. - Thickets, near the sea-coast, S. Car. to Fla. A shrubby, palm-like plant, of singular and forbidding aspect when not in flower. Leaves a foot or more long, sharp and rigid like daggers. Fls. white, with a violet base and violet spots. Jn. - Aug. (Y. Draconis L.)
6. NOLI'NA, L. C. Rich. (For P. C. Nolin, an American botanist.) Diœcio-polygamous; perianth (small) of C, ovate, spreading, sub-equal segments; stamens 6, shorter than the perianth; ovary free, 3-cornercd, 3-celled; stigmas 3, recurved, with a very short style; capsule 3-winged, 3 (or by abortion 2 or l)-seeded. - Root hearing a coated bulb. St. scape-like, branched into several long, simple, nearly bract-less racemes of very small, white fls.
N. Georgiana Mx. Dry sand hills, S. Car. and Ga. (Mettauer). Bulb very large (Elliott). Scape 2 to 3f high, with a few short lvs. at its base, which diminish to scales upwards. Root lvs. linear, 1 to 2f long, numerous, recurved, their bases much dilated and imbricated. Panicle large. Rac. loose, If or more long. Pedicels 5 to 6" long. Perianth spreading 3".
7. SCIL'LA, L. Squill. Perianth 6-parted, petals and sepals similar, spreading (blue or purple); filaments 6, subulate or filiform, smooth, hypogynous; style filiform-clavellatc; capsule free, 3-celled, 3-valved, obtusely 3-angled; cells with 1 or several roundish, black seeds. - Bulb coated, bearing several linear lvs. and a scape with a raceme.
1 S. esculenta Ker. Quamash. Lvs. linear, carinate, flaccid and recurved, tapering to both ends, shorter than the scape; bracts solitary, subulate, scarious, longer than the pedicels, which are about the length of the flowers fil. filiform; stig. 3-toothed. - Grassy, wet prairies, along the rivers, Wis. to Ohio, the uplands of Ga., and westward. Bulb nutritious, about 1' diam., resembling a small onion. Scape 1 to 2f high. Lvs. nearly as long, grass-like. Rac. 2 to 3' long. Pet and sep. linear-lanceolate, 4 to 6" long. Anth. oblong, yellow. May. (Phalangium, Nutt. Camassia, Lindl. C. Fraseri Torr) - -Improves by cultivation as to the size both of the bulbs and flowers.
2 S praebracteata Haw. Souill. Lvs. broad-linear, longer than the seape; bracts as long as the pedicels; flowers in a large conical panicle; perianth spreading, persistent. - Bulb large, white. Fls. blue, † S. Eur.
8. ORNITHOG'ALUM, L. Star-of-Bethlehem. (Gr. of a bird, milk; why so-called is not obvious.) Perianth deeply 6-parted, regular, persistent, segments many (3 to 7) veined, spreading, (white, green or yellow); filaments 6, dilated at base, scarcely perigy-nous, ovary free; style erect, tapering or subtrilobate; capsule 3-lobed, 3-Celled, 3-valved above; seeds few or many in each cell, shining, black. - Bulbous plants, scarcely differing from Scilla except in the color of the fls.
1 O. crcceum Ell. Yellow Star-of-Bethlehem. Lvs. narrowly linear, radi-ical, longer than the slender scape which bears an oblong raceme of saffron-yellow flowers at top; bracts scarious at apex, obtuse, sheathing, many times shorter than the slender pedicel; segm. Jance-ovate, obtuse, 3-veined, erect after flowering, with a greenish-orange stripe on the back; sty. and stain, subulate, shorter than the segments. - Mid. Ga., rare. (On Stone Mt., 16m. from Atlanta! Also at Macon, Dr. Mettauer.) Scape 10 to 20' high, almost filiform. Rac. 10 to 15-flowered. Ped. 8 to 12" long, fls. half as long. Apr., May. (Phalangium Mx., Nutt.)
2 O. umbellatum L. White Star-of-Eethlehem. Lvs. linear, channeled, as long as the scape, emarginate; scape bearing a few white, green-striped fls. in a loose corymb; pedicels longer than the bracts; filaments lanceolate-subulate. - Gardens, and naturalized in many localities. Scape near If high. Segm. of the .star-like perianth beautifully marked with a longitudinal stripe on the outside. May.
9. ALLIUM, L. Garlic. Onion. (Celtic all, hot or burning.) Flowers in a dense umbel, with a membranous, 2-leaved spathe; perianth deeply 6-parted, segments mostly spreading, ovate, the 3 inner somewhat smaller; ovary angular; stigma acute; capsule 3-lobed. - Strong-scented, bulbous plants. Lvs. mostly radical. Umbel on a scape.
§ Leaves flat, lanceolate, perishing before flowering. Capsule 3-seeded. Native............
§ Leaves flat, linear. Filaments simple. Ovary crested with a crown of 6 lvs. Native. (*)
* Stamens conspicuously longer than the sepals. Umbel nodding..............................
* Stamens equaling the sepals in length. Umbels with bulblets or flowers..................
Nos. 3, 4
* Stamens evidently shorter than the sepals. Umbels with flowers only.....
Nos. 5, 6
§ Leaves flat, lanceolate or lance-linear. Filaments tricnspidate. Cultivated......
Nos. 7, 8
§ Leaves terete and hollow. - Stem leafy half way up. Filaments trienspidate......................
- Scape naked. Filaments not tricuspidate................................
Nos. 10 - 12
1 A. tricoccum Ait. Lance-leaved Garlic. Scape terete; lvs. lanceolate-oblong, flat, smooth; umbolglobous; ovule and seed solitary in each cell of the 3-celled capsule. - A strong-scented plant, common in damp woods, N. H. to Va. and Wis. Bulb oblong, acuminate. Lvs. 5 to 8' long, an inch or more wide, acute, tapering into a petiole, all withering and disappearing before the opening of the flowers. Scape a foot or more high, bearing a thin, 2-leaved, deciduous spathe at top, with an umbel of 10 to 12 white fls. Jn., Jl.
2 A. cernuum Roth. Nodding Garlic. Scape angular; lvs. linear, flat, very-long; umbel cemuous; stam. simple, much longer than the perianth. - Mid. S. and W. States. This is our handsomest species. Bulb 6 to 8" diam. Scape mostly 4-angled, smooth, slender, 15 to 24' high, mostly recurved at top. Umbel 12 to 20-flo\vered. Pedicels 7 to 8" long. Fls. rose-colored. Ova. 6-toothed, becoming a roundish, 3-seeded capsule. Jl.