Trees and shrubs, seldom herbs, without stipules. Leaves opposite (alternate in one species), simple, with pinnae veinlets. Flowers 4-merous. . Sepals adherent to the ovary, the limb minute, 4-toothed or lobed. Petals 4, disti ct, alternate with the calyx teeth, valvate in the bud. Stamens same number as petals, inserted on the margin of the epigynous disk. Ovary 1 or 2 -celled. Fruit a baccate drupe crowned with the calyx.
Genera 9. species 40. They are natives throughtout the temperate zone of both continents. The Order is distinguished for its bitter and astringent bark. That of Cornns florida is so excellent tonic similar in its action to the Peruvian bark. Many are beautiful shrubs in cultivation.
1. COR'NUS, L. Dogwood. (Lat. cornu, a horn; from the hardness of the wood of some species.) Calyx limb of 4 minute segments; petals 4, oblong, sessile; stamens 4; style somewhat clubshaped; drupe baccate, with a 2 or 3-celled nut. - Trees, shrubs, or perennial herbs. Lvs. (mostly opposite) entire. Fls. in cymes, often involucrate. Floral envelops valvate in aestivation. Bark bitter, tonic.
§ Cymes subtended by a 4- leaved, white involucre...
§ Cymes naked - Leaves alternate..........
- Leaves opposite. - Twigs and cymes pubescent..............
- Twigs, etc, glabrous. - Drupes white...
.......Nos. 5, 6
- Drupes blue......
1 C. Canadensis. L. Low Cornel or Dog-wood. Herbaceous, low; upper lvs. whorled, veiny, on short petioles; st. simple. - A small, pretty plant, in woods, nearly throughout N. Am., N. of lat. 39°. Rhizome creeping, woody. The flowering stems erect 4 to 8' high, bearing 2 small bracts in the middle, and a whorl of 6 leaves at the top, two of which are larger, placed a little lower and opposite. An umbellate cyme of flowers arises from the center of the whorl, and with its large, showy involucre of 4 white leaves, might easily bo taken for a single flower. A bunch of red berries succeeds. The barren st. supports a whorl of 4 equal leaves. May, Jn.
2 C. florida L. Flowering Dogwood. Arboreous; lva opposite, ovate, acuminate, entire; fls. small, in a close, cymous umbel or head, surrounded by a very large, 4 leaved, obcordate involucre. - A tree from 20 to 30f in height, very ornamental when in flower. Woods, U. S. and Can. Wood hard and compact, covered with a rough, extremely bitter bark, used in medicine as a tonic. Lvs. (partially expanded at flowering) nearly smooth, veiny, pale beneath. The true fls. are inconspicuous, greenish yellow, but the involucre is very largo and showy, of veiny, white obovate lvs. ending in a callous point, which is turned up or down so abruptly as to appear emarginato. Drupes red. May.
3 C. alternifolia L. Lvs. alternate, oval, acute, hoary beneath; branches alternate, verrucous; drupes purple, globous. - A small tree, N. and W. States and Can., about twice the height of the last, in moist woods. The branches are smooth, even, spreading from the upper part of the stem, and forming a depressed summit. Bark greenish, marked with warty streaks. Lvs. irregularly scattered along the branches, oval-lanceolate, acute, entire veined, whitish underneath, on rather long stalks. Fls. pale buff color, in a loosa cyme. Jn.
4 C sericea L. Branches spreading, purplish, hranchlets woolly; lvs. ovate, rounded at base, acuminate, silky-pubescent beneath; cymes depressed, woolly; drupes bright blue. - U. S. and Can. A variety has lvs. tapering at base. A shrub about 8f high, with opposite, dusky purple branches, and dark red shoots. Lvs. 2 to 4' long, £ as wide, varying from ovate and oval to lanceolate, nearly smooth above, with rather prominent veins; petioles 1/2 to 1' long. Fls. yellowish white, appearing in June.
5 C. paniculata L'Her. Branches erect, grayish, smooth; lvs. ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, roughish above, hoary beneath ; cymes paniculate; drupes white. - A handsome shrub 10f high, profusely flowering, common in low woodlands and thickets, N. and W. States and Can. It has numerous and very branching sts. covered with grayish bark, the shoots chestnut-colored. Lvs. 1 to 3' long. Fls. small, white in all their parts, in many small, conical cymes, succeeded by drupes as large as peas. May, Jn.
6 C. stolonifera Mx. Red Osier. St. often stoloniferous; branches smooth; shoots virgate, reddish purple ; lvs. broad-ovate, acute, pubescent, hoary beneath; cymes naked, flat; berries white. - A small tree, N. and W. States, and Can., 8 to 10f in height, with smooth, slender, spreading branches, which are commonly red, especially in winter. It often sends out from its base prostrate and rooting stems, with erect shoots. Fls. in terminal cymes, white, followed by bluish-white drupes. May, Jn.
7 C. strfcta Lam. Branches erect, brown, glabrous; lvs. elliptical or lance-ovate, nearly glabrous and green both sicks; acute at base, long-acuminate at apex; petioles very short; cymes loose, umbel-like, fastigiate, glabrous; cal. teeth subulate, half as long as ovary; pet. ovate-lanceolate, rather acute; anthers and drupes pale blue. - Swamps, Va. to Fla. Shrub 8 to 12f high, readily known by its slender-pointed, short-stalked lvs. Apr.
β. asperipolia Feay. Lvs. scabrous-pubescent above, downy beneath, rather inclined to elliptical; cymes scabrous. - S. and W. States. (C. asperifolia Mx.) 8 C. circinata L. Branches verrucous; lvs. orbicular or very broadly oval, white tomentous beneath; cymes spreading, depressed; drupes light blue. - A shrub soma 6f high, Gin. to Md., W. to Ind. St. grayish, upright, with opposite, cylindrical, green, spotted or warty branches. Lvs. large, about as broad as long, opposite, acuminate, crowned with a white, thick down on the under side. Fls. white. Berries hollowed at base, soft, crowned With the remains of the style. Jn.
2. NYSSA, L. (The name of a nymph or naiad, says Linnaeus.) Tulepo, Gum-tree. Fls. dioecious or polygamous. £ Calyx tube very short, limb truncate; petals 5, oblong; stain. 5 - 12, mostly 10, inserted outside a glandular disk in the bottom of the calyx ; ovary 0. $ Calyx-tube oblong, adherent to the 1-celled ovary, limb truncate, a mere rim as in £ ; petals 2 - 5, oblong, often 0 or soon deciduous; stam. mostly abortive; style large, stigmatic on one side; drupe oval, 1 seeded.- Trees with small green, fls. clustered on axillary peduncles, the sterile more numerous.
1N. multiflcra Wang. Lvs. oblong-obovate, acutish or obtuse at each end, entire; the petiole, midvein and margin villous; fertile peduncles 3 (2 - 5)-flowered; style revolute; nut short, obovate, striate, obtuse. - Woodlands dyor damp. U. S. A large tree, 30 to 70f in hight, trunk 1 - 3f diam. with a light gray hexagonally broken bark. Lvs. of a firm texture, 2 - 5' long, half as wide. Peduncles 5 - 9-flowered, 111. at length slender. Drupe often solitary, blackish blue, 5 - 6" long. Wood soft, but hard to split. Apr. - Jn. (N. aquatica and biflora, auth.)
2 N. uiflora Walt. Swamp Tulepo. Lvs. green, oblong-ovato or ovate, long-petiolate, entire or denticulate, pubescent or smoothish beneath; fertile flowers solitary, 3-bracted; on slender peduncles; style nearly straight; sterile fls. 5 - 10; drupe large oblong. - Swamps, S. States, common. A tree of large size, 50- 80f high. Loaves when young thin, mostly acute at each end, when full grown large, abrupt or cordate at base, thickish, 3 - 9' long, the petioles 1 - 2'. Fruit blue, as large as a plum. Wood soft and white. Apr. May. (N. denticulata, tomentosa, angulizans Mx., etc.)
3 N. capitata Walt Ogeechee Lime. Lvs. oval or oblong, short-peiiolaie, entire, whitened beneath, midvein subvillous, obtuse at apex, acuto at base; fertile fls. solitary, on short peduncles, downy, 3 - 4-bracted, with 5 petals and 10 stamens; sterile fls. 20 - 30 in each dense globular head; fruit large, oblong. - On river banks (especially the Ogeechee!) S. States. Tree 20 - 30f high. Lvs. ample, 5 - 9' long, 2 - 3' broad, usually mucronatc; petiole 2 - 6" long. Fruit "dark red" as large as a small plum, acid. May, Jn. (N. candicans Ph.)
643. Symmetrical flower of Sedum acre.
4, of Sempervivnm.
Cohort 2, GAMOPETALae,
Or Monopetalous Exogens. - Plants having a double perianth, consisting of both calyx and corolla, the latter composed of petals partially or wholly united.