Shrubs, rarely herbs, often twining with opposite leaves, no stipules ; flowers clustered and often fragrant, 5-parted and often irregular; corolla monopetalous, tubular or rotate; stamens inserted on corolla tube, rarely one less than the lobes; ovary adherent to the calyx; style 1, stigmas 3 to 5; fruit a berry, drupe or capsule. Embryo small, in fleshy albumen.
Genera 1G, spceies 220, chiefly natives of the northern temperate regions, and occasionally found in the alpine parts of the tropical zone.
Properties. The fever-root (Triosteum perfolitum) is a mild cathartic, and in large doses emetic; the dried and roasted berries are sometimes substituted for coffee. The haves and bark of the Elder are both emetic and cathartic; the flowers are sudorific, and the berries laxative. The beauty and fragrance of the Honeysuckle in cultivation is well known.
1. LONICEREae. Corolla tubular, with a filiform style (a).
a Herbs. - Corolla 5- lobed, the stamens but4....
- Corolla 5- lobed, the stamens 5.........
a Shrubs. - Corolla bell-shaped, regular. Berry 4-celled, 2-seedcd...
- Corolla tubular, lobes unequal. Berry 2 to 3-celled......
- Corolla funnel-form. Capsule 2-celled, ∞-seeded.......
2. SAMBUCEae. Corolla rotate, deeply 5-lobed. Stigmas sessile (b).
b Shrubs with pinnate leaves. Berry 3-secded..
b Shrubs with simple leaves. Drupel-seeded...
1. LINNae'A, Gron. Twin flower. (Dedicated to Carl Von Linne, the most renowned of naturalists.) Calyx tube ovate, limb 5-parted, deciduous; bractlets at base 2 ; corolla campanubite, limb sub-equal, 5-lobed; stamens 4, 2 longer than the other; berry dry, 3-celled, indehisccnt, 1-seeded (2 cells abortive). -Ц A trailing, evergreen herb, widely disseminated throughout the northern temperate zone. Ped. 2 flowered.
L. borealis Gron. The only species, native of moist, shady, rocky soils, generally in evergreen woods, from lat. 39° to the Arc. Sea. It has long, creeping, filiform, brownish sts., rooting and branching their whole length, and covering the ground in large patches. Lvs. small, opposite, petiolate, roundith, with obtuse lobes or teeth, and scattered hairs. Fed. filiform, slightly hairy, about 3' high (the only erect part of the plant), the lower part leafy, the upper furnished with a pair of minute, linear, opposite bract", and terminating with 2 pedicellate, nodding flowers. The corolla is rose-colored and very fragrant. Jn.
2. TRIOS'TEUM, L. Fever-wort. (Gr. , three, , a Done; from the three bony seeds.) Calyx tube ovoid, limb 5-parted, segments linear, nearly as long as the corolla; corolla tubular, gibbous at base, limb 5-lobed, subequal; stamens 5, included ; stigma capitate, lobed ; fruit drupaceous, crowned with the calyx, 3-celled, 3-seeded; seeds ribbed, bony. - Ц Herbs coarse, hairy. Lvs. large, connate, Fls. axillary.
1 T. perfoliatum L. Hirsute; lvs. oval, acuminate; fls. verticillate or clustered, sessile brownish-purple. - Rocky woods, N. Eng. to Wise. S. along the Mts. St. stout, 3 to 4f high, covered with soft, clammy hairs. Lvs. 6' by 3', entire, abruptly contracted at base, pubescent beneath. Fls. in clusters of 5 or G. Cor. limb in 5 rounded lobes Fr. a rather dry drupe, crowned with the long, leafy, spreading calyx segm., orange-colored when mature. Jn. - Root large, fleshy, in much repute, having many of the properties of Ipecacuanha,
2 T. angustifolium L. Hispid; lvs. lanceolate, acuminate, scarcely connate; fls. mostly solitary, short-stalked, yellowish or straw-colored. - S. States to I11. and Glen Cove, L. I. (Mr. J. Coles). Plant 2 to 3f high, more slender and rougher than the other. Lvs. about 4 or 5' by 1', contracted to a narrow base, roughest on the upper surface. May.
3. SYMPHORICAR'PUS, Dill. Snow-berry. (Gr. , together, , , to bear, , fruit; bearing fruit in close clusters.) Calyx tube globous, limb 4 to 5-toothed ; corolla funnel-shaped or bell-shaped, the limb in 4 to 5 subequal lobes; stamens inserted on the corolla, and as many as its lobes ; stigma capitate ; berry globous, 4 celled, 2-seeded (2 opposite cells abortive). - Small shrubs, with entire, oval lvs., and small, rose-colored fls.
1 S. racemosus Mx. Fls. in terminal, loose, interrupted, often leafy rac.; cor. campanulate, densely bearded within; sty. and sta. included; berries snow-white. -A smooth, handsome shrub, 2 to 3 f high, common in cultivation, and native in W. N. York, Can., etc. Lvs. oval or oblong, the margin often wavy, nearly or quite smooth, paler beneath, on short petioles. Cor. rose-color, tho throat filled with hairs. Berries large, round or ovoid, and very ornamental when mature. Jl, Aug.
2 S. occidentalis R. Br. Wolf-berry. Lvs. ovate, obtusish; spikes dense, axillary and terminal, nodding; cor. somewhat funnel-form, densely bearded inside; sta. and bearded style exserted; berries white. - Woods, Mich, to Wis. and Can. Shrub 2 to 4f high. Lvs. 1 to 3' by § to 2'; pubescent or nearly glabrous, paler beneath. Cor. rather larger and more expanded than in the last, purplish white. Jl.
3 S. vulgaris Mx. Lvs. roundish-oval; spikes axillary, subsessile, capitate and crowded; cor. campanulate, lobes nearly glabrous; sta. and bearded stylo included ; berries dark red.- River banks, Penn to Iowa (Cousens), and S. States. Shrub 2 to 3f high. Branches purplish and often pubescent. Lvs. 1 to 2' by 3/4 to 1 1/2', somewhat pubescent. Cor. greenish-red. Jl. (Lonicera Symphori-carpus L)
4. LONICE'RA, L. Honeysuckle. Woodbine. (In honor of Adam Lonicer, a physician of Frankfort, in the sixteenth century.) Calyx 5-toothed, tube subglobous; corolla infundibuliform or campanulate, limb 5-cleft, often labiate; stamens 5, exserted; ovaries 2 to 3-celled ; berry few-seeded ; stigma capitate. - A beautiful genus of climbing or erect shrubs, with opposite and often connate lvs.
§ XYLOSTEON. Shrubs erect. Leaves never connate. Flowers in pairs (a).
a Corolla gibbous at base, lobes somewhat irregular........
Nos. 1 - 3
a Corolla not gibbous, lobes spearding, equal, roseate....
§ CAPRIFOLIUM. Shrubs climbing. Fls. sessile, mostly whorled (b).
b Leaves all distinct. Corolla ringent. Cultivated exotics..........
b Leaves (the upper pair) connate-perfoliate (c).
C Corolla subequal, both tube ami limb scarlet........................
0 Corolla limb ringent, - tube equal (not gibbous) at base............
.Nos. 8 - 10
- tube gibbous at the base....................
.Nos. 11, 12
1 L. ciliata Muhl. Fly Honeysuckle. Lvs. ovate, subcordate, ciliate; cor. limb with short and subequal lobes; tube saccate at base; sty. exserted; berries distinct, red. - A branching, erect shrub, 3 to 4f high, found in woods, Me. to Ohio and Can. Lvs. thin, oblong-ovate, often cordate at the base, somewhat dilate on the margin, and villous beneath when young. Ms. pale stiaw-yedow, in pairs at the top of the peduncle, with an obtuse spur turned onwards at, the base. Berries ovoid, red, in pairs but not connate, 3 to 5-seeded. May, Jn.