Herbs low, with the leaves mostly radical or mostly opposite, with the flowers 5-(rarely 4 to 6)-parted, regular and monopetalous, the stamens 5, inserted on the corolla tube and opposite to its lobes, the ovary one-celled, with a free central placenta, style 1, stigma 1, the capsule 1-celled, ∞-seeded; seeds with fleshy albumen.
Genera 30, species 216, common in the northern temperate regions, growing in swamps, groves by rivulets, and often among the snow of "cloud-capped mountains." Many are beautiful and highly prized in culture. Properties unimportant.
HOTTONIEae. Ovary superior. Capsule opening by valves. Leaves pectinate.
Primuleae. Ovary superior. Capsule opening by valves. Leaves undivided. (*)
* Acaulescen. - Corolla lobes spreading, tube cylindrical..............
- Corolla lobes spreading, tube ovoid..............
- Corolla lobes reflexed. - Stamens exerted...........
- Stamens included..........
* Caulescent - Corolla wanting. Leaves opposite..............
- Corolla 7-parted. Leaves in one whorl.............
- Corolla 6-parted. Leaves opposite..................
- Corolla 5-parted. Leaves opposite or whorled...........
ANAGALLIDEae. Ovary superior. Pyxis opening by a lid.-Flowers 5-parted
Samoleae. Ovary half inferior. Leaves alternate. Flowers 5-parted....
1. HOTTO'NIA, L. Water-feather. (To Peter Hotton, professor in the University of Leyden. Died 1709.) Calyx 5-parted ; corolla salver-form, with a short tube, and a flat, 5-lobed limb ; stamens inserted in the tube of the corolla, included; stigma globous; capsule globous-acuminate.- 2f. Fleshy, aquatic herbs, with pectinate-pinnatifid, submersed, radical lvs.
H. inflata Ell. Water-feather. Scape articulate, the internodes and lower parts inflated; fls. verticillate, pedunculate.-A curious aquatic plant in swamps and stagnant waters, Mass., R. I. and Ct, N. Y. to Fla. and La. Stem immersed, round, thick, spongy, with a whorl of finely pectinate leaves (1 to 2' long) at or near the surface of the water. Peduncles or scapes several together arising in a sort of umbel from the top of the stem, 8-10' long, inflated between the joints, Flowers small, white, in numerous verticils, generally 4 in each, subtended by a lance-linear bract. Apr., (Fla.), Jn. (Mass.) (H. paluslris Ph., nee L.)
2. PRIM ULA, L. Primrose. Auricula. (Lat. primus, first; because its blossoms appear earliest in spring.) Calyx angular, 5-cleft; corolla salver-shaped or often rather funnel-shaped, with 5 entire or notched or bifid lobes; stamens included, filaments very short; capsule ovoid, 5-valved, valves often bifid, opening at the top, ∞-seeded.- Herbs (mostly European) with the lvs. all radical and fls. in an in-volucrate umbel, often showy.
* Plants, native, wild. Corolla salver-form, abruptly spreading.......................................
* Planes exotic, cultivated, (a)
a Corolla salver-form. - The lobes abruptly spreading..................................
a Corolla funnel-form. - Leaves rugous, hairy, toothed.................................
- Leaves plain, smooth, often entire...........................
1 P. .Mistassmica Mx. Lvs. spatulate, dentate orcrenate, obtuse or acute, attenuate at base, green both sides ; invol. 1-8-flowered ; bracts 3 times shorter than the pedicels, linear-subulate; cal. much shorter than the tube of the corolla; cor. salver-form, lobes obcordate.-Shores of Seneca Lake, N. Y. (Dr. Sartwell), Lake Willoughby, Vt. and throughout Brit. Am. A very delicate plant, 3 to 7' high. ' Leaves about 5, 5-8" by 3-4", almost petiolate. Flowers 5' diam., white. Pedicels 7" in length.
8 P. farinosa L. β. Americana, Torr. Bird's-eye Primrose. Lvs. narrow, veiny, elliptic-lanceolate, obtuse, donticulato at apex:, attenuate at base, under surface covered with a yellowish-white, farinaceous dust; invol. farinaceous, 3-20-flowered, shorter than the pedicels; bracts long-acuminate; cal. segments lanceolate, acute; cor. salver-form, lobes obcordate, bifid, obtuse.-Shores of Lakes Huron and Superior (Nutt., Houghton), N. to lat. 66°. Scapo 6-12' high. Flowers pale purple, yellow in the center.
3 P. grandiflora Lam. Common Primrose.-Lvs. obovale, oblong, rugous, villous beneath, toothed ; umbel radical; fl. stalks as long as the leaves; cor. flat,
. - Native of Europe. An interesting garden plant, esteemed for its early flowering, and for its being prolific in variation. In its wild state its flowers are yellow and single, but by cultivation they become double, and in the numerous varieties, red, pink, white, orange, purple, etc, and the umbels, in numerous instances, are on a scape. Apr.† (P. vulgaris Huds.)
4 P. purpurea Royl. Lvs. lanceolate, obtuse, very smooth, covered beneath with yellowish farina, margin undulate, revoluto; scape thick, glabrous, longer than the leaves; invol. ∞-flowered, as long as the pedicels, farinaceous beneath ; cor. segments obovate, obtuse, not emarginate.-Native of the mountains of Na-paul, Asia. Flowers dark purple, †
5 P. officinalis Jacq. Cowslip Primrose. Lvs. toothed, rugous, hairy beneath; umbels many-flowered, flowers all nodding; cal. angular; cor. concave. - Native of Britain. Flowers yellow. Plant smells strongly of anise. Leaves are used is a potherb, and are recommended for feeding silk-worms. Its varie-
. ties may be increased by raising from the seed. Jn. † (P. veris Cam.)
6 P. elatior Jacq. Ox-lip Primrose.-Lvs. toothed, rugous, hairy on each side; umbel many-flowered, with the outer flowers nodding; cor. flat.- Native of Britain. Flowers yellow, scentless, in a simple umbel elevated upon a scape a foot high. Apr., May. †
7 P. auricula L. Auricula. Lvs. obovate, entire or serrate, fleshy; scape many-flowered, central, as long as the leaves; invol. of short leaves; cal. powdery.- Native of the Alps. A well known favorite of the florist. The cultivated varieties are innumerable, and many of them of exquisite beauty and fragrance. May. †
8 P. calycina Duby. Lvs. lanceolate, thin, smooth, entire, acute, surrounded with a white margin; invol. 3-5-flowerecl, as lons as the pedicels; cal. tube venr tricous; cor. lobes obcordate, emarginate.-Native of Mts. in Austria- Flowers purple, very beautiful, †
3. ANDROS'ACE, Tourn. (Gr. a man's, buckler or shield ; from the form of the leaf.) Calyx 5-cleft or toothed ; corolla funnel-form or salver-form, the 5 lobes entire, tube constricted at the throat, ovate, shorter than the calyx; filaments and style very short; capsule globous.-Minute csespitous herbs with radical, rosulate lvs.