12. ECHINOSPER'MUM, Swartz. Burr-seed. (Gr the sea-urchin, seed; from the character.) Calyx 5-parted ; corolla hypoerateriform, orifice closed with concave scales ; achenia 4, erect, bearing 1 to 3 rows of echinate prickles, smooth between, compressed or angular, fixed to a central column.-Herbs with bracted rac. and small, blue fls.
E. Lappula Lehm. St. branched above; lvs. lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, hairy; cor. longer than the calyx, the border erect-spreading; ach. each with 2 rows of hooked prickles on the margin.- An erect herb, in dry soils, roadsides, N. States to Arc. Am. Stem having a dry, grayish aspect, from its dense hairs, about a foot high, undivided except at the top, where it branches into a kind of panicle. Leaves 1' by 1-2", sessile. Flowers very small, blue. Jl. (Roche-lia Rœm. Cynoglossum Scop.)
13. CYNOGLOS'SUM, Tourn. Hound's Tongue. (Gr. a dog, tongue ; from the form of the long, soft leaves.) Calyx 5parted ; corolla short, infundibuliform, vaulted ; orifice closed by 5 converging, convex scales; achenia covered with echinate prickles, depressed, forming a broad, pyramidal fruit, and each fixed laterally to the style.-Cor. blue, purple or white.
§ Racemes without bracts or nearly so.............................
§ Racemes bracted at base, but the pedicels always extra-axillary......................
1 C. officinalis L. Common Hound's Tongue. Silky-pubescent, leafy to the top; root-lvs. lance-oblong, attenuate at base to a petiole, upper sessile or amplexieaul ; rac. bractless, paniculate, not stalked; nuts margined in front.- Waste grounds, pastures, common. Plant of a dull green color, emitting a disagreeable smell. St erect, hairy, 1 to 2f high. Lvs. with soft down on both sides, entire, 6 to 10' by 1 to 2', tapering into a long, attenuated base, the upper much smaller. Clusters terminal, panicled, recurved at the end. Fls. with a downy calyx and a dull red corolla. Cal. leaf-like in fruit. Sds. rough with hooked prickles. Jl. § Eur.
2 C. Virginicum L. Hirsute-pilous; lvs. oblong-oval, acute, upper ones clasping, cordate, all on the lower half of the stem; corymb terminal, leafless, on a long, naked peduncle.- Inhabiting woods and thickets, Vt to Va. and Ill., rare in N. Eng. A hairy plant, 2f high, simple, bearing at the top of its leafless summit a small, panicled corymb of pale purple flowers. Radical lvs. 5 to 6' long and half as wide. Cal. and pedicels very hairy. Jn. (C. amplexicaule Mx.)
3 C. Morrisoni DC. Beggar-ticks. St. widely branched; lvs. oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, scabrous above, pubescent beneath; rac. divaricate, dichotomous; fr. densely covered with prickles, doubly barbed at the point.- In rocky grounds and rubbish, Can. to Fla. St. furrowed, 2 to 3f high, with many slender, remote, wide-spread branchts, each terminating in a centrifugal, racemous inflorescence. Lvs. entire, remote, large (4 to 8' long), tapering to each end, the lower ones petioled. Fls. very small, white, the pedicels nodding in fruit Jl (Echinospermum Virginicum Lehm.)