Herbs mostly, with alternate lobed leaves and regular bluish flowers. Calyx 5-cleft, usually with appendages at the clefts, persistent, free. Corolla 5-lobed, often with 10 honey scales or furrows near the base. Stamens 6, inserted into the corolla, with a deeply bifid style. Ovary entire, ovoid, free, 1-celled, with 2 parietal, several-seeded placentae. Fruit 2-valved, filled by the placenta. Seeds reticulated, albuminous.

Genera 18, species 77, chiefly American. Properties unimportant

FIG. 678. Hydrophyllum virginicum, flower: a, corolla cut open, showing the honey  grooves ; b, ovary and stylo ; c, section of seed

FIG. 678. Hydrophyllum virginicum, flower: a, corolla cut open, showing the honey -grooves ; b, ovary and stylo ; c, section of seed.


§ Placentae central, large, many-seeded. Cymes not scorpoid...........................



§ Placentae parietal (at least in the middle), bearing few (1 to 4, rarely many) seeds, (b)

b Lobes of the corolla convolute in aestivation, (c)

b Lobes of the corolla imbricate (quincuuncial) in the bud. (d)

c Stamens exserted. Flowers in forked, scorpoid racemes.........



c Stamens included. Flowers solitary, opposite the leaves...............................



d Flowers solitary. Calyx much enlarged in fruit..............................



d Flowers racemed.-Lobes of the corolla entire (seeds 4.)......



-Lobes of the corolla entire (seeds∞ ).....



- Lobes of the corolla fringed.............................



1. HYDROPHYL'LUM, Tourn. Water-leaf Burr-flower. (Gr.Order XCI Hydrophyllaceae Hydrophylls 1340 water, Order XCI Hydrophyllaceae Hydrophylls 1341 leaf; the leaves in spring are said to hold water.)

Sepals slightly united at base, the sinuses sometimes appendaged ; corolla campanulate, convolute in bad, with 5 longitudinal, margined nectariferous grooves inside ; stamens exserted ; capsule globous, l. celled, 2-valved, 4-secded, 3 of the seeds mostly abortive; placentae 2, fleshy, free except at the base and apex.-Order XCI Hydrophyllaceae Hydrophylls 1342 Radical lvs. on long petioles, pinnately or palmately veined, cauline alternate. Cymes scorpoid, bractless.

§ Calyx appendaged between the sepals at base. Stamens as long as the corolla......

No. 1

§ Calyx not appendged. Filaments much exserted...............................


1 H. appendiculatum Mx. Lvs. subpalmately 5-lobed, the lower almost pin-natifid, the lobes dentate, diverging, and with the long petioles, ped. and cal. hirsute ; sep. lance-subulate, the appendages at the base ovate, acute, 4 times shorter; cor. glabrous except the minute appendages inside: stam. included.- N. Y., near Rochester, to Wis. and Va , in woods. Sts. 12 to 18' high, branched. Petioles 1 to 4' long. Lvs. roundish in outline, the broad, acute lobes pointed and diverging in a stellate manner. Cal. 4 to 5" long, appendages deflexed, 1" long. Cor. blue. May.

2 H. Virgtnicum L. Plant nearly smooth; lvs. pinnatifid and pinnate, the segments oval-lanceolate, incisely serrate; fascicles conglomerate ; ped. longer than the petioles.-An inhabitant of moist woods, Can to Car. and Western States.

Stem a foot high, bearing largo, roundish tufts of flowers, stamens and style very conspicuous, twice the length of the bell-shaped corollas. Leaves lew, on long, clasping petioles, with about 5 distinct leaflets, the upper 3 more or less confluent at base, all irregularly toothed. Corollas varying from white to sky-blue. Jn.

3 H. Canadense L. Lvs. smoothish, palmate, roundish, with 5-7 shalow lobes, unequally dentate, teeth obtuse-mucronate; fls. in crowded fascicles ; ped. shorter than the forked petioles.-Quite different in aspect from the last. Found in alpine woods, Can. to Car. W. to Ind. Stem 12-18' high, with large, roughish leaves, divided into 5-7 lobes. Fascicles of fls. dense, terminal, but shorter than the petiole which seems to continue the stem. Cor. white or variously tinged with purple, much longer than the pedicels. Jn., Jl.

4 H. macrophyllum Nutt. Whole plant reversely hispid with white hairs; lvs. oblong-oval, in outline, pinnatifid, lower segments distinct, upper confluent, all incised into rounded, mucronate teeth, cauline solitary or few. much smaller; cymes terminal, long-pedunculate, dense-flowered; cor. glabrous except the grooves inside.

-Ohio, to the Alleghany Mts. of Va. Stem a foot high, almost leafless, with a terminal globous cyme of white flowers. Radical leaves 6 to 10' long, the segments ovate-oblong. Corolla 6" long, stam. 10". Jn.

2. NEMOPH'ILA, Nutt (Gr.Order XCI Hydrophyllaceae Hydrophylls 1343 a grove, Order XCI Hydrophyllaceae Hydrophylls 1344 to love; such is their usual locality.) Calyx 5-parted, the sinuses with reflexed appendages ; corolla rotate-campanulate, the 5-lobes convolute in bud, obtuse, the tube inside bearing 10 minute folds or scales; stamens included; ovary globous, 1-celled, 2-valved, with 2 placenta?, free except at the ends, each 2 to 12-ovuled.- Order XCI Hydrophyllaceae Hydrophylls 1345 Herbs fragile, diffuse, with opposite or alternate, pinnately parted lvs., one-flowered, ped. and cyanic fls.

1 N. microcalyx Fisch. & Meyer. Glabrous, decumbent, branched: lvs. triangular in outline, 3-cleft, or the lower 5-parted, segm. with rounded mucronate lobes; ped. slender, opposite to and nearly equaling the petioles; cor. small, about twice longer than the calyx; seeds 1 to 2.-Damp woods, Macon, Ga., Ala., to Ark. and La. Sts. many, 6 to 12' long, or often but 3 to 6', very tender. Lvs. all alternate, less than 1' long, the petioles often longer. Fls. white, 1 to 2" broad. Lvs. ovoid, pitted. Apr. (N. ovanescens Darby. Ellisia, Nutt.)

2 N. insignis Benth. Lvs. oblong, pinnately 7 to 9-lobed, lobes ovate, acute, ped. longer than the leaves; cor. twice as long as the calyx, rotate-campanulate; seeds 10 to 12. Plant procumbent, in gardens, somewhat hairy, lvs. 1 to 2' long. Fls. 1' or more broad, white with a blue border, † California.

3 N. maculata Benth. Procumbent, with lvs. similarly lobed with the last, and with the fls. white, with 5 large violet-colored spots on the border. •{• California.

3. ELLIS'IA, L. (In honor of Joseph Ellis, F.R.S., an English naturalist, correspondent of Linnaeus.) Calyx 5-parted, equaling the tubular-campanulate, caducous corolla, sinus naked; cor. tube with 5-pairs of minute appendages within, limb 5-lobed; sta. included ; nectary annular, 5-toothcd ; sty. bifid, with linear lobes; caps, ovoid-globous, 2-valved; seeds 4 or fewer ripening.-Order XCI Hydrophyllaceae Hydrophylls 1346 Herbs, with pinnatifid lvs. Cor. white.