frees, shrubs, or rarely herbs, with simple or compound, alternate or opposite leaves. Flowers mostly unsymmetrical and irregular, 4 or 5-merous, with the sepals and petals both imbricated in the bud, with the stamens 5 to 10, inserted on a hy-pogynous or perigynous disk; Ovary 2 or 3-celled and lobed with 2 (rarely more) ovules in each cell. Embryo mostly curved or convoluted, with little or no albumen. (Figures 209, 358.)

Genera 73, species 415, scattered over all countries, and of various qualities and uses. The Order is named from the saponaceous principle contained in the seed of Sapinda Saponaria and other species, which makes a lather with water useful in washing. The fruits of the Paullinia are poisonous, those of Nephelium delicious and wholesome.


HIPPOCASTANEAE. Lvs. opposite. Carpels 2-ovuled. Embryo curved.

Petals unequal. Stamens T. Leaves digitate.......



SAPINDEAE. Leaves alternate. Carpels 1-ovuled. Embryo curved.

Trees. Fruit 1 to 3 fleshy, connate, globular carpels......



Herbs, climbing. Fruit an inflated, membranous capsule....





1. AESCULUS, L. Horse Chestnut. Buckeye. Calyx 5-toothed; corolla irregular, 4 or 5-petaled; stamens 7 (6 to 8), distinct, unequal, inserted on a hypogynous disk; style filiform, ovary 3-celled, with 2 ovules in each cell; fruit coriaceous, 2 to 3-valved, containing but one or very few large, smooth seeds; cotyledons thick, bulky, inseparable. - Trees or shrubs with opposite, digitate, 5 to 7-foliate lvs. Fls. paniculate, terminal.

§ AEsculcs DC. Fruit covered with prickles. Petals 4 or 5, spreading..............

.Nos. 1,2

§ Pavia DC. Fruit smooth. Petals 4, erect, the 2 upper clawed...........................

Nos. 3 - 5

1 AE. Hippocastanum L. Horse Chestnut. Lvs. of 1 obovate lfts.; pet. 5, spreading; fr. prickly. - A noble tree, justly admired for its majestic proportions, and for the beauty of its foliage and flowers. It is a native of the north of Asia, but is now known throughout Europe and in this country, and is a frequent ornament of courts and avenues. It is of rapid growth, and attains the height of 40 or 50f. In June it puts forth numerous pyramidal racemes or thyrses of flowers of pink and white, finely contrasting with the dark green of its foliage. The seed is large, mahogany-colored, and eaten only by deer, †

2 AE. glabra Willd. Ohio Buckeye. Lfts. 5, oval or oblong, acuminate, serrate or serrulate; fls. in lax thyrsoid panicles; cor. 4-petaled, spreading, with the claws as long as the calyx; stam. nearly twice longer than the corolla; fr. echi-nate. - A small, ill-scented tree, along the banks of the Ohio and its tributaries. Lfts. 3 to 6' long, 1/3 as wide, subsessile, or often contracted at base to short stalks. Fls. yellowish-white, small, slightly irregular. .Fr. hardly 1' diam. May, Jn. (Pavia Ohioensis Mx.)

3 AE. flava Ait. Big Buckeye. Sweet Buckeye. Lfts. 5 to 1, oblong-ovate or elliptic-ovate, acuminate, serrulate, pubescent beneath; fls. in thyreoid, pubescent panicles, about 6 on each division of the peduncle; cal. campanulate, not half the length of the corolla; petals very unequal, connivent, longer than the stamens; fr. unarmed. - A large tree, 30 to 70f high, common in the Southern and Western States. (In Columbia co., Ga., only 4 to 6f high, Elliott.) Lfts. 4 to 7' by 1 to 3'. Fls. pale yellow. Fr. globous, uneven on the surface, but not prickly, 2' diam., with 1 or 2 large (1' diam.), mahogany-colored seeds. Apr., May.

4 AE. Pavia L. Buckeye. Lfts. 5 to 7, oblong-lanceolate, cuneate at base, shortly acuminate, finely serrate; fls. red, very irregular in a lax, thyrsoid raceme; pet. 4, erect, as long as stamens; cal. tubular, half as long as the 2 shorter petals.- A beautiful shrub, 3 to 10f high, common in the Southern States. Lvs. of a rich shining green, the veins, petioles and twigs purple. Fls. large (1' long), red, glabrous. Mar. - May. †

5 AE. parviflora Walt. Lfts. 5 to 7, obovate acuminate, serrate, velvety canes-cent beneath; petals 4 (white), somewhat similar and spreading, thrice shorter than the capillary stamens. - A beautiful shrub, 2 to 5f high, in upper Ga. and S. Car. Fls. very numerous, in a long, slender, racemous thyrse. The upper petals are rather longer, all on slender, exserted claws. Apr., May. (AE. macrostachya Mx.)

2. SAPINDUS, L. Soap-berry. (That is, by syncope, Sapo Indicus, Indian soap.) Sepals 4 or 5; petals as many, or one less by abortion, appendaged inside with a gland, scale or beard; stamens 8 to 10; inserted on the upper surface of the fleshy disk; stigmas 3; fruit 3, connate, globular, fleshy carpels, often by abortion 2 or 1; seed large, solitary. - Trees with alternate, pinnate, exstipulate leaves.

S. marginatus Willd. Common petioles wingless; lfts. 9 to 18, ovate-lanceolate, long-pointed, very inequilateral, short-stalked, entire, glabrous, shining above; fls. in dense compound panicles,Order XLI Sapindaceae Indian Soapworts 483 or Order XLI Sapindaceae Indian Soapworts 484 . - Ga. to Ark. Tree 20 to 40f high, with bright-green foliage and small fls. in large terminal panicles. The barren panicles much more dense and compound than the fertile. Filaments hairy. Berry usually single, rarely triple, reddish-brown, as large as an ounce bullet, its pulp soapy. Seeds loose, rattling.

3. CARDIOSPERMUM, L. Heart-seed. Balloon-vine. (Gr.Order XLI Sapindaceae Indian Soapworts 485 heart, Order XLI Sapindaceae Indian Soapworts 486 seeds; the globous seeds marked with a large cordate hilum.) Sepals 4, the 2 outer smallest; petals 4, each with an emarginate scale above the base; the 2 lower remote from the stamens, their scales crested; stamens 8, unequal; style trifid; capsule membranous, inflated. - Climbing herbs with biternate lvs. Lower pair of pedicels changed to tendrils.

C. Haliacabum L. Plant nearly glabrous; lfts. ovate-lanceolate, incisely lobed and dentate; fir. pyriform-globous, large, bladder-like. - Native on the Missouri and its branches, Torr. & Gr. Naturalized in the Western States, Mead. A curious vii e, 4 to 6f in length, with remarkably, large, inflated, membranous capsules. Jl. §

4. STAPHYLEA, L. Bladder-nut. (A Greek word, meaning a cluster of grapes; from the form of the fructification.) Fls.Order XLI Sapindaceae Indian Soapworts 487 ; calyx of 5, colored, persistent sepals; petals and stamens 5; styles 3; capsules 2 to 3-celled, thin, and inflated; seeds not ariled. Shrubs with opposite, 3 to 7-foliate lvs. and caducous stipules.

S. trifolia L. Lvs. ternate; rac. pendulous; pet. ciliate below; fr. ovate. - A handsome shrub, 6 to 8f high, in moist woods and thickets, Can. to Car. and Tenn. Lfts. oval-acuminate, serrate, pale beneath, with scattered hairs. Fls. white, very elegant, in a short, drooping raceme. The most remarkable feature of the plant is its large, inflated capsules, which are 3-sided, 3-parted at top, 3-celled, containing several hard, small nuts or seeds, with a bony, smooth and polished testa. May.