This section is from the book "British Wild Flowers - In Their Natural Haunts Vol5-6", by A. R. Horwood. Also available from Amazon: A British Wild Flowers In Their Natural Haunts.
The habitat of the plant is copses, and meadows, or moist pastures. In Scotland it is found naturalized about old houses and castles. There is a large, succulent rootstock. The habit is erect. The stem is tall, stout, branched above, round, furrowed, solid, with many large leaves which are smooth above, velvety below. The radical leaves are long-stalked, oblong, lance-shaped. The stem-leaves are stalkless, toothed, heart-shaped or egg-shaped, auricled, acute. The flowerheads are large, the flower-stalk long, stout, and naked, terminal, solitary, or few. The florets are bright yellow, the ray florets ligulate. The ligules are long and slender. The bracts are leafy, the inner inversely egg-shaped, the outer broadly egg-shaped, turned back, velvety. The smooth fruit is 4-angled, the pappus pale red. Elecampane grows to a height of 3-4 ft., and flowers in Jul)' and August. The plant is a herbaceous perennial.
The habitat of the plant is woods, copses, alpine places, pastures, and heaths. The plant has a woody rootstock. The habit is erect. The stem is simple, the leaves are woolly below, linear, lance-shaped, or inversely egg-shaped, acute, the stem-leaves narrower, acute, 1-nerved. The leafstalk is not half-clasping. The flowerheads are cylindrical in a long, leafy raceme or spike, or axillary or terminal. The florets are dark brown, the involucral bracts unequal, yellow or reddish brown, blunt, the outer ones cottony. The fruit is downy, the pappus white or brown. The wood cudweed is 3-24 in. in height, flowering from July up till September, and is a herbaceous perennial.
The habitat of the plant is plantations, damp, hilly woods, and pastures. The rootstock is creeping and bears stolons. The habit is erect, solitary, the stem hollow, hairy or smooth, glandular above. The radical leaves are stalked, egg-shaped to heart-shaped, rounded at the tip. The lower stem-leaves clasp the stalk, the upper are stalkless and clasping. The leaves are hairy, with fine teeth, soft, blunt, those above acute. The 3-5 flowerheads are numerous, large, the florets yellow (both disk and ray). The earlier heads are shorter than the later ones. The flowerheads are on long stalks. The involucral bracts are long-, awl-like, lance-shaped, glandular. The receptacle is downy. The fruit is oblong, black, ribbed, that of the ray florets smooth, with no pappus, that of the disk florets hairy with white pappus. The plant is 2-3 ft. in height, flowering from May to July, and is a herbaceous perennial.
The habitat of this plant is plantations, where it is naturalized, and damp places. The habit is as in the last, but it is smooth and slender. The crown of the root is woolly. The radical leaves are long-stalked, egg-shaped, narrower, narrowed into the leaf-stalk, the stem-leaves stalkless, clasping with a winged stalk, the upper oblong, tapered to a long point, and toothed, 3-5 ribbed. The flowerhead is solitary, or, when one or more, the lateral are not longer than the central ones. The bracts are awllike. The fruit of the ray is smooth. The plant is 2-3 ft. in height, and flowers from May to July, being a herbaceous perennial.