Distant-Spiked Sedge (Carex Distans, L.)

The habitat of this species is marshes, chiefly maritime, and wet meadows. The plant has the sedge habit. The rootstock is tufted and creeping. The stems are 3-angled, smooth or roughish above, leafy below the middle. The leaves are broad, bluish-green, often bent back, flat. The sheaths are long.

The bracts are leafy, sheathed. The fertile spike-lets are distant (hence distans), erect, cylindric to oblong-, the upper stalk included; the lower bract is not so long- as the stem, the lower stalked. The male spikelets are long-stalked, slender, club-shaped to cylindrical. The glumes are egg-shaped, blunt, short-pointed, broad, rather acute, brown with a green midrib, the margins and tip white. The fruit is nearly erect, stalkless, opaque, green, egg-shaped, ascending, 3-angled, equally faintly ribbed, dotted, smooth, longer than the glumes, the beak broad, rough, slender, flat, short, and straight, blunt and pointed, the mouth membranous. The nut is broad, inversely egg-shaped, 3-sided, brown. The plant is 10-18 in. high, flowering in June, and is a herbaceous perennial.

Spotted Sedge (Carex Punctata, Gaud.)

The habitat of this plant is marshy places near the sea, wet places in the south of England and Ireland. The plant has the sedge habit. The plant is slender. The stems are smooth and slender. The leaves are short, flat, somewhat bent back. The bracts are leafy, with sheaths. The fertile spikelets are erect, cylindrical, with somewhat projecting rough stalks, especially the lowest. The lowest are often distant, the upper close. The glumes are blunt or shortly crowned or pointed, the point rough, pale-red, with a broad green dorsal band, egg-shaped. The fruit is swollen, pale, shining, membranous, scarcely 3-angled, spreading, egg-shaped, transparently dotted (hence punctata), not ribbed, longer than the glumes, the beak short, linear, with 2 points. The nut is egg-shaped to rhomboidal, narrowed both ends, triangular, rough. The plant is 1 -1 1/2 ft. high, flowering in May, June, July, and is a herbaceous perennial.

Long-Bracted Sedge (Carex Extensa, Good.)

The habitat of this plant is marshes, chiefly near the sea, brackish or salt. The habit is sedge-like. The rootstock is tufted. The plant is slender. The stems are 3-angled, smooth, slender, curved, longer than the leaves as a rule. The leaves are bristle-like, rolled up lengthwise, usually below the middle, rigid, wavy, the margin inrolled, an adaptation to drought (in this case physiological). The bracts are leafy, narrow, very long, at length horizontal. The sheaths are short. The spikelets are 3-4, shortly stalked, the male are solitary, brown, slender. The fertile spikelets are short, distant, oblong, or 2 upper or all close, or the lower rather distant. The glumes are blunt-pointed, small, brown, with a green midrib, the edges of the same colour. The fruit is egg-shaped, 3-sided, inflated, ribbed, leathery, opaque, spreading, dotted, narrowed above to a straight, short, smooth beak, divided into two nearly to the base. The nut is oblong to elliptic, olive-brown. The plant is 4-18 in. high, flowering in June and July, and is a herbaceous perennial.