This section is from the book "British Wild Flowers - In Their Natural Haunts Vol5-6", by A. R. Horwood. Also available from Amazon: A British Wild Flowers In Their Natural Haunts.
The habitat of this plant is sandy shores in south-western England. The plant has the grass habit, and to some extent mimics Panicum. The plant has a creeping root. The stem is stout, woody below, the barren shoots with spreading leaves, prostrate, with leafy, rather erect, short, smooth, flowering branches, the sheaths strongly furrowed. The leaves are awllike, bluish-green, stiff, short, the margin inrolled, the tips blunt, with prominent nerves, downy below, in two rows on the barren shoots. The sheaths are pale, the mouth hairy. The spikes are slender, many-flowered, purple, and radiate in a cluster from a common centre, being 3-6, and finger-like. The rachis is convex, with a groove above. The spikelets are overlapping. The empty glumes are egg-shaped, acute. The keel is rough, fringed with hairs. The palea is smooth, fringed with hairs. The plant is 4-8 in. high, flowering in July and August, and is a herbaceous perennial.
The habitat of this plant is sandy maritime places in southern and eastern England. The plant has the grass habit. The plant is hairless, and rather rigid. The lower nodes are tuberous (hence bulbosa), the tubers egg-shaped, with loose sheaths, the base of the stem tuberous and the offsets bulbous. The root is fibrous. The stem is smooth, round in section, soon withering, the tubers lying loose till autumn. The leaves are narrow, curved, keeled, with a white toothed border. The upper leaves are very short. The lower sheaths are short, the upper long and flattened at the border and below the middle of the stem, much longer than the leaf. The ligules are long and acute. The panicle is egg-shaped, flattened, erect, close, the branches 2-lobed, rough. The spikelets are green and purplish-brown, with 3-4 webbed florets, egg-shaped. The empty glumes are egg-shaped, acute, the keel rough. The flowering glumes are broad, acute, 3-6, downy at the border and on the acute keel, the nerves being indistinct. The plant is 6-8 in. high, flowering in April and May, and is a herbaceous perennial.
This species has been regarded as a variety of G. maritima. It differs in the stem, which has a large central cavity. The leaves are flat. The spikelets and flowers are larger than in the type.
The habitat of this species is coasts. The stem is firm, erect, slightly arching at the top. The leaves are broader than in G. maritima, of which it has been regarded as a variety, but are not flat. The spikelets and flowers are larger than in the latter. The plant is 2-3 ft. in height.
The habitat of this species is sandy (chiefly maritime) places, seashores, and waste sandy places. The plant has the grass habit. There are rarely rooting stolons. The stem is prostrate below. The root is tufted. The stem is usually tall and slender. The leaves are flat, broad, with 8-10 prominent ridges above. The ligule is short and blunt. The panicle is long, spreading, branched, the branches 4-5-lobed, long, slender, bent down at length, or horizontal, the lowest in fours or fives. The spikelets are 3-5-flowered, linear, the rachis half-round in section, flat one side. The lower palea is blunt, the midrib not reaching the tip, the edges not rolled inwards. The plant is 9-24 in. high, flowering between July and October, and is a herbaceous perennial.