This section is from the book "British Wild Flowers - In Their Natural Haunts Vol5-6", by A. R. Horwood. Also available from Amazon: A British Wild Flowers In Their Natural Haunts.
The habitat of this plant is sandy places, walls, and sandy shores. The plant has the grass habit. This plant has been regarded as a variety of F. ciliata = F. bar-bata and as a subspecies of F. Myurus. The plant is slender, with the leaves with inrolled margins. The panicle is short and close, long, narrow, erect.
The glumes are not hairy. The upper sheath nearly reaches the panicle. The upper empty glume is 3-6 times as long as the flowers. The flowers are round in section, rough. The plant is 4-8 in. high, flowering from May to July, and is a herbaceous annual.
The habitat of this plant is sandy and dry places on the shore. The plant has the grass habit. The root is fibrous. The stems are round in section, downy. The leaves are broad, bright-green, flat, hairy. The sheaths are round, the hairs spreading or turned back. The ligule is short and blunt. The panicle is loose, erect, nodding at length, slightly branched. The branches are short, closely pressed, slightly divided after flowering, lengthening. The rachis is downy. The spikelets are downy, long, lance-shaped, stalked in fruit, long-awned, pale-green or purple. The rachilla is hairless. The empty glumes are membranous, narrowed, awned. The upper glumes are twice as long, nearly equalling the lowest flowering glume. The flowering glumes are thin, narrow, rough, narrowed to the awn, which is also rough. The nerves are indistinct. There are 2-3 stamens. The plant is 9-24 in. high, flowering in June, July, and August, and is a herbaceous annual.
The habitat of this plant is seashores and tidal rivers, maritime shores. The plant has the grass habit. The stems are erect, solid above, densely tufted. The plant is soboliferous. The leaves are rough, firm, pungent, with the margin rolled inwards, an adaptation to drought, ribbed, the ribs rough in one line. The spike is close, 5-12-flowered. The spikelets are rough on the keel. The lower palea is acute. The glumes are keeled, acute, with 7-9 ribs reaching the tip, the rachis having broad internodes, and nearly or quite smooth, not brittle. The lower palea is awned. The plant is 1-2 ft. high, flowering from June to August, and is a herbaceous perennial.
The habitat of this plant is gravelly and waste places near the sea. The plant has the grass habit. The plant is not hairy. The root is fibrous. The stems are bent, curved below, ascending, stout or slender (hence filiformis). The leaves are leathery, short, rather rough, with inrolled margins. The sheaths are flattened, smooth, the upper inflated. The ligule is very short, auricled. The spike is slender (hence filiformis), awl-like, erect or prostrate, straight, short. The rachis is ridged, grooved, concave. The green spikelets are spreading, or closely pressed to the rachis. The empty glumes are oblique, linear to oblong, acute. There is one green nerve in the flowering glume. The keels of the palea are not hairy. The two glumes are united below, and equal or exceed the flowers. The plant is 4-10 in. high, and is in flower between July and September. It is a herbaceous annual.