†† Petals 5 or more, usually more conspicuous than the sepals.
(2) Myosurus - petals small, with a tubular claw.
(3) Ranunculus - petals with a small scale or hollow near the base.
** Carpels several, many-seeded; (flowers regular.)
(4) Caltha - sepals five, large; petals none.
(5) Helleborus - sepals five, large; petals small, tubular.
*** Carpels solitary, many-seeded.
(7) Berberis - sepals, petals, and stamens six each.
* Pod siliquose, much (at least 3 or 4 times) longer than broad.
† Calyx with 2 evident sacs or pouches at the base.
(8) Cheiranthus - pod compressed; stigmas two-lobed or capitate.
††Calyx equal at the base.
(9) Barbarea - pods linear, four-angled; the valves with a prominent rib.
(10) Arabis - pods linear, compressed; valves nearly flat, with a prominent rib.
(11) Cardamine - pods linear, compressed; valves nerveless.
(12) Alliaria - pods linear, terete, the valves convex 3-ribbed; stalk of the seed flattened and winged.
(13) Dentaria - pods narrow-lanceolate, tapering, compressed; valves flat, nerveless.
** Pod siliculose, less than three times as long as broad.
† Pod (or pouch) dorsally compressed, the valves parallel to the broad partition.
(14) Draba - pouch oval or oblong, compressed; cells manyseeded; filaments simple.
(15) Alyssum - pouch roundish or oval, compressed; cells twoseeded; filaments toothed or winged near the base.
†† Pod (or pouch) laterally compressed at right-angles to the narrow partition, the valves Keeled.
(16) Hutchinsia - pouch elliptical, entire; cells two-seeded.
(17) Teesdalia - pouch emarginate, the valves narrowly winged; cells two-seeded; filaments with a scale-like appendage near the base.
(18) Thlaspi - pouch emarginate; the valves broadly winged; cells many-seeded; filaments simple.
(19) Viola - lower petal and filaments of the two lower stamens spurred.
* Sepals united into a cylindrical tube.
(20) Lychnis - styles five, rarely four; capsule opening in 5-10 teeth at top.
** Sepals distinct or cohering only at the base; (leaves without stipules).
† Capsule opening in 4-5 valves.
(21) Sagina - sepals and petals four or five, the latter entire, sometimes wanting; styles four or five.
†† Capsule opening in 8-10 teeth. ‡Petals entire.
(22) Arenaria - sepals and petals five each; styles three, rarely four.
(23) Maenchia - sepals and petals four each; styles four.
Petals toothed or jagged, not cleft.
(24) Holosteum - sepals and petals five each; styles three, rarely four.
‡‡‡ Petals bifid or cleft.
(25) Cerastium - sepals and petals four or five; styles five, rarely four or three; capsule opening at top with short teeth. (20) Stellaria - sepals and petals five; styles three, rarely five; capsule opening halfway down.