The Spindle-tree family+ . . .
The Buckthorn family+ • . •
The Leguminous family . . .
The Rose family ...........................
The Evening Primrose family .
The Mare's-tail family* . . .
The Purple Loosestrife family .
The Tamarix family* . . . .
The Cucumber family . . . .
The Waterblinks family* . . .
The Spurrey family* . . . .
The Houseleek or Stonecrop fam.
The Currant family+ . . . .
The Saxifrage family . . . .
The Umbelliferous family . . ,
The Ivy family .................
The Dogwood family+ . . . .
The Woodbine family+ . . .
The Mistletoe family . . . ,
The Madder family .......................
The Cranberry family . . .
The Bell-flower family . . .
The Lobelia family* ...
The Valerian family . . .
The Teazle and Scabious family
. The Composite family . . .
Of these, those marked + contain trees principally. Those marked * have but few British species. Those families numbered 5, 6, 7, 8, 10,11, 12, 14, and 16 are polypetalous. Those numbered 9 and 19 to 25 inclusive, are monopetalous - one petal only.
The families that require study, from the number of genera they contain, are four:
a. The Leguminous family, the flowers of which are butterfly-shaped (papilionaceous), as the gorse and pea. Fruit in a pod. This family is the same as the Linnaean class 17, Diadelphia, order Decandria.
b. The Rose family has flowers of many stamens attached to the orifice of a calyx. This class is the same as the Linnaean class 12, Icosandria.
c. The Umbelliferous family has flowers with five stamens, and two carpels arranged in umbels.
d. The Composite family have the anthers united, and form a tube round the style. This peculiarity distinguishes it from the Scabious family, Linnaean class 19, Syngenesia. If the flower belongs to neither of these families, it will not be difficult to refer it to its proper family.
3. Corollifloroe. In this sub-class are sometimes included the monopetalous members of Calycifloroe.
The flowers have both calyx and corolla. The petals are combined in one, and bear the stamens, which are not united with the calyx. There are nineteen families subdivided according to the structure of the flowers.
1. The Heath family . . .
2. The Winter-green family .
3. The Bird's-nest family . .
The above have from eight to ten stamens.
4. The Holly family . . .
6. The Privet and Ash family
The foregoing contain trees or shrubs only.
6. The Periwinkle family* .
7. The Gentian family ....................
8. The Greek Valerian family*
9. The Bindweed family*. .
10. The Borage family .................
11. The Nightshade family
12. The Primrose family . .
13. The Sea Lavender family*.
14. The Plantain family ......................
This family contains four stamens.
Those marked with * have five stamens.
The above have the flowers regular, or nearly so. The families that require particular attention, from the number of genera that they contain, are four:
a. The Gentian family, which are smooth, upright plants, with bell or funnel-shaped delicate flowers.
b. The Borage family have round stems and harsh foliage, generally rough or prickly. The flowers are delicate. The bugloss and the forget-me-not furnish familiar examples.
c. The Nightshade family have generally clammy leaves, dingy flowers, and a rather disagreeable odour.
d. The Primrose family have delicate salver-shaped or wheel flowers, with the stamens opposite the segments of the corolla.
In the Second division the flowers are irregular, ringent, or labiate.
The Butterwort family. .
The Broom-rape family
The Figwort family ................
The Vervain family ................
The Labiate family ................
The Figwort family have a two-celled, many-seeded seed-vessel, like the snapdragon, Linnaean class 14, Didyncmia, order Angiospermia.
The Labiate family have a two-lipped flower, with four small nuts at the bottom of the calyx. It corresponds generally with the Linnaean class 14, Didy-namia, order Gh/mnospermia.
4. Monochlamydeoe. The distinguishing feature of this sub-class or division is the flowers having a single perianth or none. No plant of this order has both calyx and corolla, as the catkin of the willow or cone of the pine. It includes sixteen families, subdivided into - 1, Herbs and small shrubs; 2, Trees principally which are easily distinguished.
The Amaranth family ...
The Goosefoot family . . .
The Knawel family ...
The Knotgrass and Sorrel family
The Sandal family ......................
The Sallow-thorn family . .
The Mezereon family ...
The Birthwort family . . . .
The Crowberry family . . . .
The Spurge family ....
The Water Starwort family . .
The Hornwort family . . . .
The Nettle family.....
The other families consist principally of trees.
The Elm family .........................
The Amentaceous families . ,
These include - The Gall or Myrtle family, Myrica-ceoe; the Birch family, Betulaceoe; the Willow family, Salicaceoe; and the Cupbearing family, Cupuliferoe. 16. The Conebearing family . . . Coniferoe.
5. Monocotyledons or Endogenoe. This class has seeds with a single lobe, and is divided into two sub classps: 1, Petaloideoe; and 2, Glumaceoe; grass and corn having chatty bracts instead of petals. The leaves are in parallel veins with the exception of the black bryony family, Dioscoreaceoe; the Paris family, Trilliaceoe. By some botanists these form a supposed connecting link between Exogenoe and Endogenoe, but they are generally included with the latter. The remaining sixteen families of the Petaloideoe are -
The Frogbit family ....
The Orchis family . . . .
The Iris and Crocus family
The Daffodil and Snowdrop fam
The Lily family ......................
The Meadow-saffron family
The Water-plantain family
The Flowering Rush family
The following have inconspicuous flowers. The first three have flowers on a spadix or thick fleshy spike; the remainder without.
The Reedmace family . .
, . Typliaceoe.
The Arum family ...............
The Sweet Sedge family .
, . Orontiaceoe.
The Rush family ...................
The Arrowgrass family . ,
The Pipewort family . .
The Duckweed family . .
The Pondweed family . .
The Glunaceoe contain the grasses and sedges only.
Who will say that the time spent in this study is thrown away? It gives additional interest to the walk. It is a source of perennial pleasure. It opens up a new world full of delightful thoughts and joyous associations. It lends a new charm to the landscape. It displays new visions of beauty to the soul. "What greater delight," says dear, loving old Gerarde, in his glorious book on plants, " is there than to behold the earth apparelled with plants as with a robe of embroidered worke, set with orient pearles, and garnished with great diversitie of rare and costly jewels ? If this varietie and perfection of colours may affect the eie, it is such in herbes and floueres, that no Appelles, no Zeuxis, ever could by any art expresse the like; if odour or if taste may worke satisfaction, they are both so souveraigne in plants, and so comfortable, that no confection of the apothecaries can equal their excellent virtue. But these delights are in the outward senses; the principal delight is in the mind, singular, enriched with the knowledge of these visible things, setting forth to us the invisible wisdom and admirable workmanship of Almightie Go 1."