Acaulescent herbs, with fibrous roots, naked 1-flowered circinate scapes, and leaves in a basal rosette, the upper surface commonly glandular and covered with a viscid secretion. Calyx 5-lobed, more or less 2-lipped, the upper lip 3-lobed, the lower 2-lobed. Corolla 5-lobed, more or less 2-lipped, the upper lip 2-lobed, the lower 3-lobed; base of the corolla saccate and contracted into a nectariferous spur. Capsule 2-valved. Seeds oblong, reticulate. [Latin, pinguis, fat, from the apparent greasiness of the leaves of several species.]

About 35 species, of wide distribution in the northern hemisphere, and southward along the Andes to Patagonia. Besides the following, 4 others are found in the southeastern United States. Type species: Pinguicula vulgaris L.

Scapes villous, 1'-2' high; corolla pale violet, less than 6" long.

1. P. villosa.

Scapes glabrous or nearly so, 2'-6' high; corolla violet-purple, more than 7 long.

2. P. vulgaris.

I. Pinguicula Villosa L. Hairy Butterwort

Fig. 3858

Pinguicula villosa L. Sp. Pl. 17. 1753.

Pinguicula acutifolia Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 1: 11. 1803.

Scapes slender, densely villous, 1'-2' high, becoming 1 1/2-5' high in fruit. Leaves 3-6, the blades oval, obtuse or emarginate, 3"-6" long, the margins usually inrolled; calyx minute, \"-\" long, the lobes acute, the 2 lower ones smaller and partly united; corolla pale violet with a yellowish striped throat, 4"-6" long including the slender obtuse spur, 2-lipped, the upper lip erect, 2-lobed, the lower spreading, 3-lobed; capsule subglobose, about 1" in diameter.

In bogs, circumpolar; southward in America to Labrador, Hudson Bay, Yukon, and Alaska. June-July.

* Text contributed by Dr. John Hendley Barnhart.

I Pinguicula Villosa L Hairy Butterwort 529I Pinguicula Villosa L Hairy Butterwort 530

2. Pinguicula Vulgaris L. Common Butter-Wort. Bog Violet

Fig. 3859

Pinguicula vulgaris L. Sp. Pl. 17. 1753.

Scapes glabrous or nearly so, 1'-6' high, little if at all elongating in fruit. Leaves 3-7, the blades ovate to elliptic, obtuse, 1/2'-1 1/2' long, the margins usually inrolled; calyx 1 1/2"-2 1/2" long, the lobes obtuse, the 2 lower ones more or less united; corolla violet-purple, 7"-10" long including the subulate acute spur, 2-lipped, the lips equally spreading, the upper 2-lobed, the lower 3-lobed; capsule ovoid, 3-4" long, 2i"-3" in diameter.

On wet rocks or gravelly places, circumpolar; southward in America to Newfoundland, New Brunswick, Vermont, northern New York, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, and British Columbia. June-July. Bean-weed. Yorkshire sanicle. Sheep-root or-rot. Rot-grass. Sheepweed. Steep or earning-grass, from its use in curdling milk.

Pinguicula alpina L., reported from Labrador on account of a single specimen said to have been collected there many decades ago, probably does not occur in North America. It has flowers about the size of those of P. vulgaris, but nearly white and with a very much shorter obtuse spur.