Annual or perennial usually tufted glabrous herbs, with opposite leaves, and middle-sized white yellowish purple or blue flowers in terminal and axillary often panicled cymes. Calyx deeply 4-cleft or 4-parted, the segments lanceolate or oblong. Corolla campanulate, 4-5-cleft, the lobes convolute in the bud, each with a hollow spur or projection below, which is glandular at the bottom within, or sometimes spurless. Stamens 4 or 5, inserted near the base of the corolla; filaments filiform or subulate; anthers oblong, versatile. Ovary 1-celled, the placentae more or less intruded; ovules numerous; style very short, sometimes none; stigma 2-lobed. Capsule ovoid or oblong, 2-vaIved. Seeds globose-ovoid to oblong, compressed, smooth. [In honor of Jonas Halen, 1727-1810, a pupil of Linnaeus.]

About 30 species, natives of mountainous regions of North America, South America and Asia. Besides the following, another occurs in the southwestern United States. Type species: Halenia sibirica Borck.

1. Halenia Deflexa (J. E. Smith) Griseb. Spurred Gentian

Fig. 3365

Swertia deflexa J. E. Smith in Rees' Cyclop, no. 8. 1816. Halenia deflexa Griseb. in Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 2: 67. pl.

155- 1834. H. Brentoniana Griseb. in Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 2: 68. 1834. H. heterantha Griseb. loc. cit. 1834. Tetragonanthus deflexus Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 431. 1891.

Annual or biennial; stem simple or branched, slender, erect, 6'-2o' high, usually with long internodes. Basal leaves obovate or spatulate, obtuse, narrowed into petioles; stem-leaves ovate or lanceolate, acute, sessile, 3-5-nerved, 1-2' long, the uppermost much smaller; calyx-segments lanceolate or spatulate, acute or acuminate; corolla purplish or white, about 4" high, its lobes ovate, acute, the spurs deflexed or descending, one-fourth to one-half the length of the corolla or none; capsule narrowly oblong, 6"-7" long, about twice as long as the calyx.

In moist woods and thickets. Newfoundland and Labrador to Massachusetts, New York, Saskatchewan, Montana, Michigan and South Dakota. Races differ in size of the plant and of the flowers and in the development of the corolla-spurs. Recorded from the " Indian Territory " (Oklahoma), apparently erroneously. July-Aug.

1 Halenia Deflexa J E Smith Griseb Spurred Gentian 36