This section is from the book "Sub-Alpine Plants Or Flowers Of The Swiss Woods And Meadows", by H. Stuart Thompson. Also available from Amazon: Sub-Alpine Plants: Or, Flowers of the Swiss Woods and Meadows.
Rootstock creeping, slender. Stems 6-8 inches high, naked but for 2 alternate, stalked, ovate, and deeply cordate, glabrous leaves. Flowers small, white, in a terminal, short raceme. Perianth of 4 divisions. Stamens 4. Ovary 2-celled. Berries small, red.
Mountain woods, often abundant in the lower Alps and in the plains. May, June.
Central and Northern Europe; Russian Asia, N. America. Very rare in England (Yorkshire).
Stem 9-12 inches or more high, with a whorl of 4 (rarely 5) broadly ovate, shortly-acuminate, sessile leaves. Peduncle rising about an inch above the leaves. Perianth yellowish green; the 4 outer segments lanceolate, the 4 inner ones linear and rather yellower; all spreading to form a star-shaped flower. Anthers linear, erect. Berry bluish black, as large as a pea.
Woods and shady thickets. Widely spread. May, June.
Europe, to the Arctic Circle. Western Asia. British.
The only European monocotyledonous plants which are shrublike and almost woody. A small European and North African genus known by its stiff, shrub-like habit and almost prickly leaves.
A stiff, dark green, much-bracted shrub 2-4 feet high. Leaves very numerous, ovate, ending in a prickly point. Flowers small, greenish white, apparently sessile in the middle of the 'leaves' or cladodes, which are really leaf-like branches. Actually the flowers are borne on pedicels from the axil of the leaf and closely adnate to the surface with a minute scaly bract under the flowers. Berry red, large.
Woods, hedges, and rocky thickets. March to May.
Central and Southern Europe, Western and Northern Asia, N. Africa. Introduced into Britain.
Flowers solitary on a leafless scape, large, pink spotted with white and yellow, the 6 acute perianth-segments recurved abruptly, the 3 exterior ones furnished at the base with a little tooth on each side. Leaves 2, opposite, radical, oblong, or elliptic, spotted with red. Seed-vessel a 3-celled capsule.
Thickets and wooded hills in the south. March, April. In Switzerland only native in Tessin, though naturalised near Geneva, etc.
Apennines, Southern Alps, Cevennes and Central plateau of France, Corbieres, Pyrenees; Central and Southern Europe; Caucasus, Siberia, Japan.
Bulbs scaly. Stem leafy. Flowers large. Stamens hypogynous or attached to the base of the perianth-lobes. Anthers versatile. Fruit a 3-celled capsule.
About 50 species inhabiting temperate regions of the northern hemisphere, and particularly Japan.
2-3 feet high. Leaves in whorls of 6 or 8. Flowers dull pink or lilac, spotted with dark purple, pendent, with recurved segments. Alpine meadows and pastures and bushy places up to 7300 feet, especially on limestone; local, but sometimes quite numerous.
June to August.
Central and Southern Europe, Caucasus, Siberia, Japan.
1. LILIUM MARTAGON.
2. LILIUM CROCEUM.
3. LUZULA PILOSA.
4/7 NATURAL SIZE.