Suborder III. Pyroleae. (Pyrola Family.)

Calyx free from the ovary. Corolla polypetalous. More or less herbaceous evergreens.

13. Py'rola. Calyx 2-parted. Petals 5, concave. Stamens 10. Stigma 5-lobed. Leaves evergreen, clustered at the base of an upright scaly-bracted scape which bears a simple raceme of nodding flowers.

14. Mone'ses. Petals 5, orbicular, spreading. Stamens 10. Stigma large, peltate, with 5 narrow radiating lobes. Plant having the aspect of a Pyrola, but the scape bearing a single terminal flower.

15. Chimaph'ila. Petals 5, concave, orbicular, spreading.. Stamens 10. Stigma broad and round, the border 5-crenate. Low plants with running underground shoots, and thick, shining, sharply serrate, somewhat whorled leaves. Flowers corymbed or urn-belled on a terminal peduncle.

Suborder IV. M0n0tr0peae. (Indian-Pipe Family.)

16. Monot'ropa. A smooth perfectly white plant, parasitic on roots. bearing scales instead of leaves, and a single flower at the summit of the stem.

17. Pteros'pora. A purplish-brown clammy-pubescent plant, parasitic on the roots of pines. Stem simple. Flowers numerous, nodding, white, forming a raceme.

18. Hypop'itys. A tawny or reddish parasitic plant, with several flowers in a scaly raceme, the terminal one generally with 5 petals and 10 stamens, and the others with 4 petals and 8 stamens.

1. Gaylussa'cia. H.B.K. Huckleberry

1. G. resino'sa, Torr and Gr. (Black Huckleberry.) Fruit black, without a bloom. Racemes short, 1-sided, in clusters. Leaves oval or oblong. Branching shrub, 1-3 feet high. - Low grounds.

2. G. dumo'sa, Torr, and Gr. (Dwarf Huckleberry.) Fruit black, insipid. Racemes long, with leaf-like, persistent bracts. Leaves obovate, oblong, mucronate. - Sandy-low ground, Atl. Prov.

2. Vaccin'ium

L. Cranberry. Blueberry. 1. V. Oxycoc'cus, L. (Oxycoccus vulgaris, Pursh, in Macoun's Catalogue.) (Small Cranberry.) A creeping or trailing very slender shrubby plant, with ovate acute evergreen leaves only 1/4 of an inch long, the margins revolute. Corolla rose-coloured, 4-parted, the lobes reflexed. Anthers 8. Stem 4-9 inches long. Berry only about 1/4 of an inch across, often speckled with white. - Bogs.

2. V. macrocar'pon, Ait. (Oxycoccus macrocarpus, Pursh, in Macoun's Catalogue.) (Large or American Cranberry.) Different from No. 1 in having prolonged stems (1-3 feet long) and the flowering branches lateral. The leaves also are nearly twice as large, and the berry is fully 1/2 an inch broad. - Bogs.

3. V. Vitis-Idaea, L. A low plant with erect branches from tufted creeping stems. Leaves evergreen, obovate, with revolute margins, shining above, dotted with blackish bristly points beneath. Corolla bell-shaped, 4-lobed. Anthers 8-10. Flowers in a short bracted raceme. - Northward and eastward.

4. V. Pennsylvan'icum, Lam. (Dwarf Blueberry.) Stem 6-15 inches high, the branches green, angled and warty. Corolla cylindrical, bell-shaped, 5-toothed. Anthers 10. Flowers in short racemes. Leaves lanceolate or oblong, serrulate with bristly-pointed teeth, smooth and shining on both sides. Berry blue or black, with a bloom. - Dry plains and woods.

5. V. Canaden'se, Kalm. (Canadian Blueberry.) Stem 1-2 feet high. Leaves oblong-lanceolate or elliptical, entire, downy both sides, as are also the branchlets. - A very common Canadian species.

6. V. vacil'lans, Solander. (Low Blueberry.)' Stem 1-2 feet high, glabrous, with yellowish-green branchlets. Leaves obovate or oval, very pale or dull and glaucous, at least beneath. Corolla between bell-shaped and cylindra-ceous, the mouth somewhat contracted. - Dry soil; western Ontario mostly.

7. V. corymbo'sum, L., (Swamp Blueberry) is a tall shrub (3-10 feet) growing in swamps and low grounds, with leaves varying from ovate to elliptical - lanceolate, and flowers and berries very much the same as those in No. 4, but the berries ripen later.

Var. amoe'num, Gray, has the leaves bristly-ciliate, green both sides, shining above. - S. W. Ontario.

Var. pallidum, Gray, has the leaves mostly glabrous, pale or whitish, glaucous at least underneath, and serrulate with bristly teeth. - Atl. Prov.; also Niagara River.

Var. atrococ'cum, Gray, has the leaves entire, downy, or woolly underneath, as well as the branchlets. - Chiefly eastward.

8. V. Stamin'eum, L. (Deer-berry. Squaw Huckleberry.) Stem diffusely branching, 2-3 feet high. Leaves ovate or oval, pale, whitish beneath. Corolla open-bell-shaped, 5-lobed, greenish-white or purplish. Anthers 2-awned on the back, much exserted. Flowers slender-pedi-celled. Berries greenish or yellowish, large. - Niagara River, above Queenston.

3. Chiog'enes. Salisb. Creeping Snowberry

C. hispid'ula, Torr, and Gr. Leaves very small, ovate and pointed, on short petioles, the margins revolute. The lower surface of the leaves and the branches clothed with rusty bristles. Berries bright white. - Bogs and cool woods.

4. Arctostaph'ylos

Adans. Bearberry. A. Uva-ursi, Spreng. Flowers in terminal racemes. Leaves alternate, obovate or spathulate, entire, smooth. Berry red. - Bare hillsides.

5. Epigae'a

L. Ground Laurel. Trailing Arbutus. E. re'pens, L. (Mayflower.) Flowers in small axillary clusters from scaly bracts. Leaves evergreen, rounded and heart-shaped, alternate, on slender petioles. Flowers very fragrant. - Dry woods in early spring.

6. Gaultheria

Kalm. Aromatic Wintergreen. G. procum'bens, L. (Teaberry. "Wintergreen). Flowers mostly single in the axils, nodding. Leaves obovate or oval, obscurely serrate, evergreen. Berry bright red, edible. - Cool woods, chiefly in the shade of evergreens.

7. Cassan'dra

Don. Leather-leaf. C. calyculata, Don. Flowers in 1-sided leafy racemes. Leaves oblong, obtuse, flat. - Bogs.

8. Androm'eda

L. Andromeda. A. polifo'lia, L. Stem smooth and glaucous, 6-18 inches high. Leaves oblong-linear, with strongly revolute margins, white beneath. - Bogs.

9. Calu'na

Salisb. Heather. C. vulga'ris, Salisb. (Heather.) A low evergreen shrub with numerous opposite minute leaves, mostly auricled at the base. Flowers axillary or terminating very short shoots, forming close racemes mostly one-sided, rose-coloured or white. Calyx of 4 sepals. Corolla 4-parted, bell-shaped. Calyx and corolla both persistent and becoming dry. Stamens 8. Capsule 4-celled. - Found sparingly in a few places on the coast of Nova Scotia and Newfoundland.

10. Kal'mia. L. American Laurel

1. K. glau'ca, Ait. (Pale Laurel.) A straggling shrub about a foot high, with few-flowered terminal corymbs. Branchlets 2-edged. Leaves opposite, oblong, the margins revolute. Flowers 1/2 an inch across. - Bogs.

2. K. angustifolia, L. (Sheep Laurel. Lambktll.) Leaves opposite or in threes, oblong, obtuse, petioled. Corymbs lateral, many-flowered. Pod depressed. Pedicels recurved in fruit. - Bogs and damp barren grounds, abundant eastward.

11. Le'dum

L. Labrador Tea. L. latifo'lium, Ait. Flowers white, in terminal umbellike clusters. Leaves elliptical or oblong. Stamens 5, or occasionally 6 or 7. - Bogs.

12. Rhododendron

L. (Rose Bay. Azalea.) R. Rhodo'ra, Don. Corolla irregular, nearly an inch long, two-lipped; the upper lip 3-lobed; the lower lip of two oblong-linear, curved, nearly or quite distinct petals. Stamens 10, as long as the rose-coloured corolla. Leaves alternate, oblong, somewhat pubescent. Shrub. - Bogs and damp barrens, from Montreal eastward.

13. Py'rola

Tourn. Wintergreen. Shin-leaf. * Style straight, narrower than the 5-rayed stigma.

1. P. mi'nor, L. Leaves roundish, slightly crenulate, thickish, usually longer than the margined petiole. Raceme not one-sided: Flowers white or rose-colour. Style short and included in corolla. - Cold woods, Atl. Prov. and northward.

2. P. secun'da, L. Easily recognized by the flowers of the dense raceme being all turned to one side. Leaves ovate.

Style long, protruding. - Rich woods. Var. pu'mila has orbicular leaves, and is 3-8-flowered. - Peat-bogs and swamps.

* * Style declined, the apex curved upward. Stigma narrower than the ring-like apex of the style.

3. P. rotundifo'lia, L. Leaves orbicular, thick, shining, usually shorter than the petiole. Calyx-lobes lanceolate. Flowers white, or in var. incarnata rose-purple. - Moist woods.

Var. asarifo'lia, Hook., has round-reniform leaves, and mostly rose-coloured petals.

Var. uligino'sa, Gray, has broadly ovate calyx-lobes, mostly obovate dull leaves, and flesh-coloured petals.

4. P. ellip'tica, Nutt. (Shin-leaf.) Leaves elliptical, thin, dull, usually longer than the margined petiole. Flowers greenish-white. - Rich woods.

5. P. chloran'tha, Swartz, has small roundish dull leaves, converging greenish-white petals, and the anther-cells contracted below the pore into a distinct neck or horn. - Open woods.

14. Mone'ses. Salisb. One-flowered Pyrola

M. unliflo'ra, Gr. {M. grandiflora, Salisb.) Leaves thin, rounded, veiny, and serrate. Scape 2-4 inches high, bearing a single white or rose-coloured flower. - Deep woods.

15. Chimaph'ila. Pursh. Pipsissewa

1. C. umbellata, Nutt. (Prince's Pine.) Leaves wedge-lanceolate, acute at the base. Peduncles 4-7-flowered. Corolla rose- or flesh-coloured. - Dry woods.

2. C. maculata, Pursh. (Spotted Wintergreen.) Leaves ovate-lanceolate, obtuse at the base, the upper surface variegated with white. - Dry woods.

16. Monot'ropa. L. Indian-Pipe. Pine-sap

M. uniflo'ra, L. (Indian-Pipe. Corpse-Plant.) Smooth, waxy-white, turning black in drying. - Dark rich woods.

17. Pteros'pora. Nutt. Plne-Drops

P. Andromede'a, Nutt. Calyx 5-parted. Corolla ovate, urn-shaped, 5-toothed, persistent. Stamens 10. Stigma 5-lobed. Pod 5-lobed, 5-celled. - Usually under pines in dry woods.

18. Hypop'itys. Scop. Pine-sap

H. lanugino'sa, Nutt. Somewhat pubescent. Sepals bract-like. Stigma ciliate. Style longer than the ovary, hollow. Pod globular or oval. - Oak and pine woods.