The genus Agaricus includes all brown-spored species which have free gills and a stem with a collar. The distinctive features of several edible species may be quite satisfactorily seen by reference to the table with parallel columns.

Mushroom-growing is becoming quite an important industry in this country ; both professional horticulturists and amateurs successfully engage in it. It is not a difficult matter to raise the common mushroom, as the conditions necessary are easily obtained. Mushrooms will grow almost anywhere out of doors, and also in cellars, caves, and tunnels where a uniform and mod-crate temperature of from 500 to 6o° Fahr. can be maintained. The part of a cellar devoted to mushrooms must be darkened somewhat, must have a dry floor, and must be protected from wet overhead and from winds. These conditions are common in cellars which are rather dark, but sufficiently well ventilated not to be musty. The bed for the mushrooms is prepared in a manner Fungi with Gills similar to that employed in making a hot-bed, care being taken that the conditions are such that too great heat is not generated. Any one desiring to experiment will find it helpful to have the "Farmers' Bulletin," No. 53, "How to Grow Mushrooms," which may be obtained from the United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C.

Cra'-ter-el-lus. Thel-e-pho-ra'-ce-ae A-gar'-i-cus

Section of C. cantharellus

Section of C. cantharellus.

Agaricus campestri, L. (edible

Agaricus campestri, L. (edible") Reduced. See page 76.

Agaricus abruptus, Pk. (edible). Reduced. See page 77.

Agaricus abruptus, Pk. (edible). Reduced. See page 77.

Field Mushroom (Edible)

Field Mushroom (Edible).

(Agaricus campestris, L.) This is the uncultivated variety of the common mushroom. See p. 76

Brown-spored Series

I - Plants Growing In Pastures, Grassy Or Open Places

Agaricus campestris

A. Rodmanl

A. arvensis

A. subrufescens

Stem -Stuffed or solid.

Stem - Stuffed or solid.

Stem - Hollow.

Stem - Hollow.

Gills - At first pink, later brown.

Gills - At first white, later brown.

Gills - At first slightly pink, then brown.

Gills - At first white, then pinkish, then brown.

Gills - About as broad as the thickness of the cap.

Gills - Less broad than thickness of cap.

Collar - Simple and thin; often but traces seen in old specimens.

Collar - Double ; a deep groove between the two layers in old specimens.

Collar - Double ; upper part membranous, white ; lower part thicker, subtomentose, radially split ; yellowish.

Collar - Scaly on its lower surface.





II - Plants Growing In Woods Or Groves, Or On Sea-Coast

A. hemorrhoidarius

A. placomyces

A. sylvaticus

A. maritimus

Flesh - Quickly changing to dull red when wounded.

Flesh - Not changing to dull red when wounded.

Flesh - Not changing to dull red when wounded.

Flesh - Pinkish or reddish when wounded.

Cap - White, or white with brown scales; or, when old, chocolate brown.

Cap - With numerous persistent brown scales.

Cap - Without scales, or with few evanescent ones.

Stem - Short or solid.

Stem - White, bulbous.



Edible, but unimportant.


Fungi with Gills

Fungi with Gills.

Common Mushroom (Edible)

Agaricus campestris (See Plates Facing Pages 74 and 75)

Cap or Pileus - Silky, or with fine fibres. The young plants- "buttons" - are hemispherical or almost globose. The mature plants are convex or nearly flat. White, or tinged with dingy browns. Skin separable. Margin extending beyond the gills.

Gills or Lamella - Delicate pink, then dark brown, covered by a veil in young plants. Crowded, rounded at the inner extremity. Not attached to stem.

Stem or Stipe - White, smooth; stuffed; that is, softer within than without. Shorter than the diameter of the cap.

Ring or Annulus - Delicate, often disappearing with age.

Flesh - White. Much esteemed.

Spores - Brownish, elliptical.

Time - Late summer and autumn.

Habitat - In pastures, lawns, and open places.

Agaricus campestris is the mushroom ordinarily seen in the markets, either fresh from the growers or preserved in cans.

Rodman's Mushroom (Edible)

Agaricus Rodmani

Sections of A. Rodmani

Sections of A. Rodmani.

Cam-pes'-tris Rod-man-I

Rodman'S Mushroom, Young (Edible) {Agaricus Rodmani, Peck. Reduced)

Rodman'S Mushroom, Young (Edible) {Agaricus Rodmani, Peck. Reduced).

Rodman'S Mushroom, Mature (Edible)

Rodman'S Mushroom, Mature (Edible).

(Agaricus Rodmani, Peck)

Nat. size: Cap diam., 3 1/4 inches ; stem length, 2 inches

Agaricus abruptus, Peck. (Edible)

Agaricus abruptus, Peck. (Edible).

Brown-spored Series

Cap or Pileus - Creamy, with brownish spots. Firm, surface dry.

Mature specimens frequently have the surface or the cap broken into large, brownish scales. 3 3/4 inches broad. Gills or Lamella - Whitish, then pink, becoming dark brown.

Narrow, close, unequal. Stem or Stipe - Fleshy, solid, short, thick. 2 inches long. Ring or Annulus - Double. Spores - Brown. Flesh - Firm, white, assuming a pinkish or salmon tint. When cut, agreeable nutty flavour. Time - May to July. Habitat - Grassy grounds, crevices of unused pavements. The specimen photographed was foundgrowing in a cluster between broken stone in the gutter of a village street in New Jersey.

Agaricus ab-ruptus (Edible)

Cap or Pileus - Creamy white, dry, and silky. Irregular in shape when young. Yellow when bruised. Gills or Lamella Slightly pinkish when the veil first breaks; deeper pink in mature specimens, becoming brownish. Soft, free from the stem, crowded, unequal. Stem or Stipe - Creamy white, deeper cream, or brownish near the base.

Hollow, stiff, brittle,sometimes splitting lengthwise. Abruptly bulbous at the base, tapering toward cap. 3 inches long. Spores - Brown. Veil and Annulus - Frail, part adhering to the margin of the cap, part forming a ring on the stem. Flesh - White, solid. Decided taste of pistachio-nut. Time - September. Habitat - The specimen photographed grew by the trail along

Section of A. abrupeus

Section of A. abrupeus.

splitting lengthwise. Abruptly bulbous at the base,

Lake Placid.