The genus Russula may usually be recognised by its brittle character, added to its fleshy stem and the fact that the lamellae are usually joined to the stem. Bright clear reds and purplish hues prevail, but several species exhibit a green colour, or an approach to green. The spores are white or yellowish, and the flesh never exudes a milky or coloured juice.

Emetic Russula (Dangerous)

Russula emetica

Cap or Pileus - Rosy tint to rich red. Flesh thin. The margin furrowed with parallel lines. Skin separable, somewhat viscid. Cap diameter of specimen photographed, 3 1/2 inches.

Gills or Lamella. - White. Usually uniform, occa-siona1ly unequal ; broad and brittle.

Stem or Stipe - Rosy. Swollen near the base. Specimen photographed, 2 1/3 inches long.

Spores - White.

Flesh - White, unless just under the skin, where it may be pink. Very fragile. Peppery to the taste.

Om-pha-li-a Um-bel-li'-fe-ra Rus'-su-la E-met'-I-ca

Section of R. emetica

Section of R. emetica.

Emetic Russula (dangerous) (Russula ernetica, Schaeff).

Emetic Russula (dangerous) (Russula ernetica, Schaeff).

Green Russula (edible).

Green Russula (edible).

(Russula virescens, Fr.)

See page 69.

White-spored Series

Taste - Acrid and biting. Time - July to November.

Habitat - In damp meadows, in woods, in grassy places, under pine trees and firs.

Green Russula; Verdette (Edible)

Russula virescens

Cap or Pileus - Greyish green. At first globose, then expanded ; convex or depressed at the centre. Firm and dry. Not viscid, but adorned with flaky greenish or yellowish patches, produced by the cracking of the skin. 2-4 inches broad. Margin marked with impressed lines.

Section of R. virescens

Section of R. virescens.

Gills or Lamella - White. Moderately close ; free, or nearly so ; narrow as they approach the stem. Some forked, others not. Stem or Stipe - Shorter than the diameter of the cap. Smooth, white, and solid, or somewhat softer within. 1-2 inches long. Spores - White, rough, nearly globose. Flesh - White ; mild in taste.

Fungi with Gills

Time - July and August.

Habitat - Grassy grounds, groves, and open woods.

No milky nor coloured juice, no coloured circular zones.

Variable Russula (Edible)

Russula heterophylla

Cap or Pileus - Variable in colour. Greenish or pinkish grey, but fleshy, firm ; slightly convex, then depressed ; smooth, and polished, the very thin skin disappearing. Margin thin, smooth, or with slightly depressed lines closely placed.

Stem or Stipe - Solid, firm, smooth, shining white, the apex oc-casionally dilated in the form of a cup.

Annulus or Volva - None.

Gills or Lamella - Narrow, crowded, forked ; white ; of different lengths.

Spores - White.

Flesh - White ; mild in taste.

Habitat - Woods. Common.

Time - July to October.

The specific name refers to the difference in the lengths of the gills.