This section is from the book "The Manufacture Of Liquors, Wines, And Cordials, Without The Aid Of Distillation", by Pierre Lacour. Also available from Amazon: Manufacture of Liquors, Wines, and Cordials, Without the Aid of Distillation.
Syrups, like every other commodity in commerce, should be manufactured to suit the views of all grades of purchasers.
The adulterations consist of mucilage of slippery elm bark and gelatine, as the finest "book isinglass," and pure bone glue, known as " Cooper's gelatine; these to be used should be tasteless and odorless, otherwise they are unsuited. One hundred grains of book isinglass dissolve in ten ounces of water, forming a tremulous jelly when cold. The mucilage of the elm bark is obtained upon boiling from six to ten ounces of the bark, to one or one and a half gallons of water for one hour. The bark will answer for subsequent boilings, as it does not always yield its mucilage upon the - first boiling. The adulterated syrup will soon sour; this can be delayed to a great length of time by the use of sugar of milk; one part, of sugar of milk to thirty-one of the syrup, to prevent fermentation in all kinds of syrups. This is the only reliable article that we have.
Sugar of Milk is a hard, somewhat gritty substance, crystallized in four-sided prisms, and possessing a slightly sweet taste; it is prepared from milk. When intended for use, it should be dissolved in the water intended for the syrup, in the above-mentioned proportion. This will be found highly useful in the preservation of light-bodied syrups, and also for syrups that are to be kept for any length of time.
Aromatic Syrups. - Take refined sugar, five pounds; clean clear water, two pints; boil for two hours in the two pints of water; one ounce of bruised ginger one half ounce cloves, one half ounce calamus root, bruised ; nutmegs, one ounce. Dissolve the sugar in the water by the aid of a gentle heat. The amount of sugar can be lowered to two and a half pounds to two pints, if desired. The water, after boiling as above mentioned, should be strained. When this syrup is near cool, add four drops oil of bitter almonds, fifteen drops essence of cinnamon, one table-spoonful of essence of nutmegs, twenty drops essence of lemon. Stir the syrup well, to enable the essence to combine; this can be colored to taste.
Syrup may be known when it has been sufficiently boiled, by the stirrer being withdrawn from the hot syrup with rapidity, and holding it on a horizontal line and observing if the syrup flows on the side of the stirrer with a thick body, and if it falls from it in the form of shot; and when these round particles of the syrup are ropy, viscid, falling from the stirrer in threads, or suspended by thread or hairy-like attachments, are evidences of its having been boiled sufficiently. The use of the saccharometer will indicate the proper density; this should stand at 30° in boiling syrup, and 30 1/2° in hot weather, and at 35° in the syrup when it is cool. Syrup boiled to this density is very heavy, and weighs about twelve and a half to thirteen pounds to the gallon. It has a fine body, and is the heaviest that is made.
Blackberry Syrup. - Expressed juice of blackberries, one pint; clarified sugar, two and a half pounds; whiskey or brandy, half a glass. Dissolve the sugar by the aid of heat, in the juice, in the same manner as for other syrup. When the syrup is cool, add the spirit.
The juice is expressed from fruit by placing it in a bag of suitable size, and submitting it to pressure.
When the juice is too thick, dilute it with water. It is customary to make a pint of syrup from a pint measure of the fruit.
Pineapple Syrup. - This can be made in the same manner as blackberry, or by slicing the fruit, alternating the slices with layers of powdered sugar, permitting them to stand twenty-four hours, and then expressing the syrup formed. Each pound of the pared fruit, with thirty ounces of sugar, should yield, with the requisite quantity of water, two pints of syrup.
These syrups will have their aromatic aroma greatly impaired by heat.