Bone Black

Consists of the bones of animals, being burned and ground. The particles are porous, and are composed chiefly of lime. Bone black is used in the manufacture of liquor for removing grain oil. and as a decolorizing agent. Both of these processes are detailed in another chapter of this work.

Red Beets

Are only used for the red coloring matter that they yield, which is obtained by slicing them and infusing in water, or fermenting them with the fermenting liquid that is desired of a red color. Five pounds will color forty gallons of liquid a light shade of pink, and ten pounds will give to the same quantity a deep-red rose color.

Brazil Wood

This wood yields to water a beautiful red color, which is used in all classes of liquors. Where a red would be desirable, three pounds of the wood to five gallons of water, and infuse for five to ten days.

Beech Wood

The chips of this wood are used in the manufacture of vinegar, as described in another part of the work. The advantages that this wood oresents over any other for the purpose are owing to a strong predisposition,, to fermentation that is manifest in this wood while in contact with any fermentive matter.

Balsam of Peru

Is viscid, like syrup or honey, of a dark, reddish-brown color, and a fragrant odor and warm bitterish taste, leaving when swallowed a warm or prickling sensation in the throat. It is used in cordials.


Raspberries, mulberries, and strawberries, are all used in the manufacture of syrups. The process of depressing the fruit of its juice consists in placing it in a muslin bag and expressing the juice. One pint of the fruit is allowed to make one pint of syrup. For full directions, look under the head of Syrups.


Is used in all kinds of liquors where a rough astringent taste would be desirable. The dark colored catechu is the best. The usual mode of using it is to reduce it to a powder, and work it into a paste with some of the liquid, and then add it to the mass The extremes for its use is from four to ten ounces to one hundred gallons.

Caustic Potassa

Has been proposed as an economical source for rectifying alcohol. The plan consists in the saponification of the grain oil by the aid of potassa, and separating this product from the spirit by straining. With some this process has failed, owing to the fact that the potassa did not attack the oil.

Charcoal ("Vegetable")

Is used for rectifying spirit. The charcoal acts by absorbing the grain oil. Vegetable charcoal is inferior to animal charcoal. The common objection urged against the use of animal charcoal is the peculiar ammoniacal fetor that it imparts to the liquor that is filtered through it. This, it must be obvious, is owing to the animal matter not being entirely driven off by burning. As a decolorizing agent, vegetable is inferior to animal charcoal.