Cochineal. - This insect is found wild in Mexico, and as a coloring substance it is one of the most useful that we have, and is suited for all kinds of liquors that are dependent upon red as a color. Cochineal is soluble in water and alcohol, but more so in boiling alcohol.


Is made use of in filtration in liquors that need clarifying. The liquid is allowed to pass through the cotton, and the clarification is effected by the particles in the liquid becoming entangled in the fibres of the cotton. The cotton is sometimes placed in a funnel, or in a filtering or straining bag, and the liquid is allowed to pass through it. The sand fil-terers will be found to be superior, more particularly where a large volume of liquid is to be clarified.


Every part of the egg is made use of as finings for liquors, wines, cordials, and syrups. The egg effects clarification of fluids by involving during its coagu- lation the undissolved particles, and rising with them to the surface or subsiding.


That are made use of by the liquor manufacturer, consist of acetic ether, which is obtained by the distillation of sulphuric acid, acetic acid, and alcohol, and are used in the imitation of brandies, wines, etc.

Nitric Ether is distilled from nitric acid and alco hol. This is used principally for flavoring gin.

Butyric Ether is produced by the chemical decomposition of rancid butter, and is used for imparting a flavor of pineapples.

For the full directions for quantities necessary in the formation of liquors, see another chapter, and also the formulas.


The mucilage of this seed is obtained by boiling, and is used for giving a body to wines.


Are used for clarifying liquids of impurities, and are made of various forms and composed of different articles. The most usual are charcoal (animal and vegetable), sand, cotton, and muslin. The most common form, however, in arranging filters is to use any convenient sized cistern or barrel; and in this arrange one bed of charcoal (vegetable) to a depth varying from two to five feet, and the last bed consisting of sand to the depth of from twelve to forty inches, packed in alternate layers with shells, which prevents the sand from becoming too closely embedded, which would prevent free filtration. But for ordinary purposes the sand filtration alone will remove the objectionable impurities. As the sand becomes charged with coloring matter from continued filtration, it will have to be removed from the sand by washing in clean water. It may be necessary to pass the fluid through the sand several times before it becomes perfectly clear. To obviate this, increase the quantity of sand to double. Sand is only used to give transparency to any color by separating the minute particles that tend to impart a heavy cloudiness to liquids; but when a liquid is to be rendered limpid (colorless) filtration through animal charcoal will have to be resorted to.