The quantity of food required by a normal man depends not only upon his size, the greater amount of muscular work, but, in the first place, on the climate. A body exposed to a cool, bracing atmosphere, or to extreme cold demands an increased supply of food. The ravenous appetite noticed among the inhabitants of cold climates may be due in part to the fact that their food-supply is very irregular, as to make them eat to excess when supplied with food. According to Dr. Hayes, the arctic explorer, the daily ration of the Esquimaux, is from twelve to fifteen pounds of meat, about one-third of which is fat. The demand for fatty substances increases with the greater cold; hence the Esquimaux as all other inhabitants of the arctic regions, do hardly know anything drinkable but fatty beverages, such as cod-liver oil, sperm oil, etc., of which they use from four to five pounds daily.
The temperate zones, varying very much in their temperature and moisture according to the different elevations, the greater or lesser distance from oceans, the greater or lesser exposure to warm and cold winds, require what we might name a general diet. People in the parts nearer to the tropics will regulate their diet in accordance with the rules prescribed for these, while those nearer to the arctic regions will have to accommodate themselves to their demands. Everywhere, however, we find a desire for fermented beverages, be it wine or beer, whiskey or brandy.
The Kirghisians' favorite drink is the Kumyss, prepared from fermented horse-milk.
The inhabitants of Korea (Eastern Asia) prepare their wine of rice or millet, of which they are extremely fond.
The Japanese make their wine mostly of rice, and call it Saki.
♦Although we must warn every man of the Caucasian race not to yield too much to the enjoyment of alcoholic beverages within the tropics, because there everything ought to be shunned that aids in producing more individual heat and needs much oxygen for combustion, yet we must state that this restriction must be confined to white people only. The indigenous inhabitants do not seem to suffer at all from their fermented beverages, at least not more than white people from theirs. Ample proofs of it we find in the publications of explorers. In the following we want to give some testimonials for the correctness of our assertion:
"As the people were amiable .... we had soon an abundance of ... . plantain and palm wines for cheer." - Stanley: Through the Dark Continent', October 18, 1876.
"Tippu Tib gave a banquet of rice and roasted sheep to the expedition; and malofu, or palm wine, from Mpsi-ka Island, assisted to maintain the high spirits." - Ibid, December 26, 1876.
"We supposed them to be dancing and enjoying their palm wine, the delicious and much-esteemed malofu." - Ibid, February 10, 1877.
uBut the people, upon whom our liberality had produced too strong an effect, would not permit us to do so (leave) until we had further celebrated our acquaintance with copious draughts of their delicious wine (sweet maramba or banana wine)." - Ibid, March 26,
1875"With rather glazed eyes they offered us some of the equatorial nectar. The voyage had been long on this day, and we were tired, and it might be that we sighed for such cordial, refreshing drink as was now proffered to us. At any rate, we accepted their hospitable gift, and sucked heartily, with bland approval of the delicacy of the liquid." - Ibid, April, 1875.
"Refreshments were not wanting to cheer the dancers. Great masses of beef were roasted over glorious fires, and many jars of beer and maramba, brought from Bwina and Komeh, invited the special attention of the thirsty." - Ibid, July 17, 1875.
"A great drinking of maramba wine and potent beer followed." - Ibid, October 29, 1875.
The Barabra in northeast Africa prepare a beverage, "Merissa," of the flour of Duchn, by pouring over it boiling water and letting it ferment for awhile. The yellowish - looking, sparkling, sour - tasting fluid is changed to a beer by adding some herbs. The Bar-abras are ever so fond of this liquid.
The Ketchuas, the descendants of the old Incas, know no higher enjoyment than drunkenness; each festival is celebrated by excessive drinking. Their favorite beverage is "Chicha" (pronounced Tschitscha), a fermented maize decoction, cooling, opening, nutritious, and intoxicating, if taken in great quantities.
The Indians of the Caribbean Sea prepare fermented beverages from the Mandioca root. Paiwari, Paiwa, Kassiri, are the names of just as many fermented drinks.
A specific beverage of the Hottentots is the "Krii," or honey-beer; it is made of wild honey, water and the fermented decoction of the Krii-root. Likewise they understand how to prepare alcoholic liquids by infusing berries.
Between the Senegal and the Niger everything is concentrated upon the enjoyment of alcoholic drinks. The negro - fond of drinks, may it be wine, beer, or alcohol - is willing to acknowledge the supremacy of the European, and is an enemy to Mohammedanism. Vice versa, the negro that does not drink is a follower of Mohammed, whether he knows who Mohammed was or not. It may occur that a drinker, after a bacchanal, in repentance of it, shaves his hair closely, with the exception of the centre; then he is "Tub," or a convert, and will join the public religious services of the Mohammedans. The drinker, however, wears his full hair. If he be obliged to require the services of a barber, i. e. of a piece of glass or a sharpened shell, he will take great care to leave a wreath of hair, in order never to be taken for a "Tub." From afar you may distinguish with comparative surety the one that does not drink (Sering) from the one that drinks (Tjedo), respectively, the Mohammedan from the heathen or Christian. Both hate and despise each other, and some tribes, as the Diobas and the Sarrars, shoot every Mohammedan at sight. On the other side, ask a believer in Islamism what should be done with a drinker, and he will make a significant motion with his hand around the throat, and in most cases a drinker is beheaded on the spot. But as the proverb says, "II y a des accom-modements avec le ciel," the teetotalers help themselves by swallowing rather large quantities of cologne-water.