Before using any agent upon paint or varnish stains, it is best to scrape off as much of the stain as possible from the surface of the material.

One of the following agents may be used for the removal of paint and varnish stains, not including "alcohol stain," which is discussed separately:

1. Soap and water. Fresh stains, especially on washable materials, are removed easily by carefully washing with plenty of soap. Older stains sometimes can be removed in this way if they are first softened by rubbing oil, lard, or butter into them thoroughly.

2. Turpentine. Sponge the stains with pure turpentine, or wash the whole article in it, if the spots are large or scattered, and then rinse it several times in fresh quantities of the solvent.

3. Turpentine and ammonia. Stains which are not fresh and yet have not entirely hardened can be softened by moistening them with ammonia and sprinkling them with a little turpentine. Roll the article up for 15 or 20 minutes, or soak it for several hours, if necessary, and then wash it with warm water and soap.

4. Oil solvents, such as chloroform, applied in the same way as the turpentine, are satisfactory (No. 2). Gasoline, kerosene, and alcohol are less satisfactory.

5. Sodium carbonate or washing-soda (3 tablespoons to each gallon of water). Boil the stains in this solution. The method is successful for such materials as will stand the treatment.

None of these methods will remove extremely old stains.

In paint causing an alcohol stain, a pigment is suspended in alcohol with small amounts of shellac and other resinous material. The methods of removing it from fabrics differ somewhat from those for ordinary paint stains. Treatment with turpentine alone or with other oil solvents, which usually will remove ordinary paint stains, is ineffective. One of the following agents should be employed:

1. Soap and water for very fresh stains on washable materials.

2. Alcohol. If the stains are fresh, sponge them freely with alcohol.

3. Turpentine and ammonia for old stains.

4. Strong ammonia for old stains. Soak the stain for half an hour in strong ammonia and then wash.

Paints, water color.

The following agent will be found satisfactory for removing stains made by water color paints on materials not injured by water:

1. Soap and water. Wash the material in lukewarm or cold water with soap, the stained portions being rubbed if necessary. Both fresh and old stains can be removed in this way. This method is satisfactory in the case of washable silks and woolens, as well as cotton or linen materials.

The following agents are fairly successful in removing these stains from materials like finished silks, which would be injured by washing. Although it is almost impossible to remove all traces of the stains, the appearance of the spots may be improved greatly.

2. Gasoline. Dip the stained portion in gasoline and rub vigorously.

3. Glycerin and water. Sponge the stain with glycerin until the water color is removed and then with lukewarm water to remove the glycerin. In case a water ring is left, treat this as described under "water spots" (page 306).