Perhaps there is nothing that will give greater refreshment to the invalid, obliged to lie in bed day after day, than a bath. Unless contrary to the physician's orders, one should be given every day. If given in a warm room, without exposure, there is absolutely no danger of the patient taking cold. To make matters doubly sure, before taking out of the bath blankets, rub the patient all over with 50 per cent alcohol.

Never give a bath until an hour after a meal. Before beginning see that the room is not only warm but free from draughts, also that you have everything needed at hand. It is best to have the water in a foot tub; it will keep warm longer than in a shallow basin. Have a pitcher of hot water to keep the bath the required temperature.

A large blanket, face and bath towels, wash cloths, alcohol and powder are the other necessary articles. Slip the blanket under the patient. If it is not wide enough to come well round her and also for the ends to overlap, use two. The blanket may be covered by a sheet if necessary but the wool next the body is desirable.

Take off the night-gown and fold down the upper bed clothes-the face and neck are washed first and well dried, then the arms and hands. Be particular about drying between the fingers, also around and inside the ears. Especially while washing the face have a firm touch. Expose only one portion of the body at a time, and that not longer than necessary. Dry each part well before going on to the next; in order not to fatigue the patient, work as quickly as possible. It should be necessary to turn her only once. The towels should be warmed by wrapping them around a hot water bottle. It is well to give hot broth or milk soon after the bath.

To give a foot bath, loosen the bed clothes at the bottom, protect the bed with a blanket, put the foot tub, half full of water lengthwise on the bed, flex the patient's knees, raise her feet with one hand while you draw the tub under them with the other; wrap a blanket round tub and knees.

When mustard is desired, make a paste of the mustard-about two tablespoonsful to a large foot tub. The feet remain in about twenty minutes, the bath being kept at the same temperature by the addition of hot water from time to time. Be careful in adding the hot water not to pour it in near the feet.

The Foot Bath

When the bath is over wrap the feet in the blanket for a few minutes, then dry.

To give a bath for the reduction of temperature a large rubber (covered with a sheet) is necessary to protect the bed, as a considerable amount of water must be used.

There are several different kinds of bed baths given for this purpose. Sometimes the patient is simply sponged off with cold water, at others a hot sponge comes first, followed by the cold which often consists of equal parts of alcohol and water, made colder at times by the addition of ice. The doctor always orders the temperature of the bath, and also the duration, which is generally from ten to twenty minutes.

In giving these baths, use slow, long, curving, downward strokes, and plenty of water. Where there is a high temperature there is no danger of catching cold, and as eradiation of heat is the effect sought, the patient should be exposed as much as possible. It is often desirable, when the sponging is over, to rub the patient with alcohol, and fan till dry.

When possible, the "Brand" treatment is used for the reduction of temperature (especially in typhoid). For this, a portable tub, which can be wheeled to the bedside, is required. It would not be safe to give such a bath without the assistance of a doctor or trained nurse; it is, therefore, not worth while going into details, and, except in cases of long continued fever, the bed bath is generally all that is necessary.

Baths for Reduction of Temperature

"Brand" Treatment

When given a hot bath in a tub, fill the tub three-fourths full of water; the exact temperature will be ordered by the doctor, usually it is from 106 degrees F to no degrees F. The doctor also states how long he wishes the patient to remain in the bath. When giving a hot bath of any kind, for any purpose, always apply cold cloths or an ice cap to the head. A hot drink given either while the patient is in the tub

Hot Baths to Induce Perspiration, or Quiet the Nerves or after the return to bed will further induce perspiration. Mustard is sometimes added to these baths, just as it is to the foot bath.

While in the tub the patient's pulse must be noted carefully, as such baths are sometimes very depressing to the heart. After the bath the patient must go to bed immediately, and remain there well covered, and care must be taken to have warm clothing going from the bath to the bed. These baths are also given to children in convulsions.

The hot-pack, or sweat, is generally considered a better medium for inducing perspiration. To give this protect the bed with a rubber sheet or oil cloth, wring out two old blankets in water 130 degrees F, put one under the patient and around one arm and leg, the other over the patientand around the other arm and leg; put an ice cap or cold compress on the head, a hot water bag at the feet, another over the heart, others along the side, over all wrap a couple of dry blankets; give a hot drink. The patient generally remains in the pack from twenty minutes to half an hour. The pulse should be taken every five minutes, and as the hands are under the blankets it must be taken at the temporal artery.

After being taken out of the pack the patient should be rolled in a dry blanket and remain so for an hour.

Except where a light weight is desirable, as over the heart and abdomen, a good substitute for the rubber hot water bag is a stone bottle; even a glass one can be used, and if a wire a couple of inches longer than the bottle is put into it to act as a heat conductor, it can be filled with quite hot water without breaking. When using hot water bags or bottles of any kind, precautions must be taken to avoid burning the patient, which is very easily done, especially with old people, or where from any cause, the circulation of the blood is sluggish or the tissues in poor condition; therefore, see that the bottles are tightly corked, that they are well and securely covered (flannel bags slightly larger than the bottles make the best covering) ; never put them too near the patient, and remember that when the patient is restless the bags are apt to slip nearer than you intended them to be.

Bath Thermometer

Bath Thermometer

Salt baths are given for their tonic effects. A bath sufficiently strong to redden the skin and have an exhilarating effect will require ten pounds of ordinary sea salt to a bath tub about half full of water.

The average standard temperature for baths is as follows:

Salt Baths

Cold......33°-65° Fahr. Tepid.850- 920 Fahr.

Cool......67°-75° Fahr. Warm92°- 980 Fahr.

Temperate.75°-85° Fahr. Hot. 98°-ll2b Fahr.

Giving A H0t Pack

Giving A H0t-Pack

The regular bath thermometer is encased in wood to protect it from hard usage, but the ordinary atmospheric thermometer will answer the purpose just as well. Mix the water well before taking the temperature.

Hot Pack Completed

Hot-Pack Completed

Hot Water Bottles

Hot Water Bottles

Hot Water Bottle For The Spine

Hot Water Bottle For The Spine

Water Bottle for the Throat

Water Bottle for the Throat