These are the most numerous and important constituents in the bases of flavorings, because of their concentrated form and cheapness of price, as well as the greater convenience in their application, as compared with the more crude conditions in which they originally exist. Their isolated and concentrated form is also their greatest danger. First, because of that enemy of oxidizable substances, the atmos phere; and, secondly, from that other and greater enemy (we hesitate to point squarely), we will say, the dishonest man. His generic name we know to be "mixer," and while we do not believe him to be amphibious, we are satisfied he can be found in most of our large cities. We have seen him at times ourselves, and the effect of his slight of-hand performances we can never forget.

The proper selection and preservation of essential oils is a matter of no small importance, and until this feature of the work is well learned and conscientiously adhered to, there can be no certainty of securing the very end for which this book is written and which is, of all its features, the most important.

Vegetable Aromatics

Aromatic vegetable substances, from which flavoring extracts are made direct, are not numerous. The most important, perhaps, in every particular, being vanilla. This, as well as the liquid forms of the sources of flavorings, is liable to be deteriorated, not so much from natural as from causes directly under the con-trol of, and often attributed to, man. A sorry fact, if true.

Other aromatic vegetable sources of flavorings are not to any great degree liable to sophistication.

In closing these remarks on the materials used in the manufacture of flavoring extracts, we have tried to outline a general plan of particulars which, we trust, will be an earnest of our efforts in the pages to follow. We shall attempt to lasso every fact of importance in the fundamental work, as well as in the detail of formula. If we fail to satisfy the most exacting, it will not be for want of earnest effort, and we trust our effort will not be in vain.