Jams, marmalades, and preserves are canned by the open-kettle method, because it is necessary to cook them long and slowly with a large amount of sugar in order to evaporate the water and secure the density desired. Bacteria do not grow readily in a dense syrup, hence jams, marmalades, and preserves do not spoil readily, and it is not necessary to process them.

Apple Butter

A good apple butter may be made from the pulp that is left after extracting the juice from apples or crab apples when making jelly, if some juice remains in the pulp. Put the pulp through a colander to remove skins and seeds. Weigh pulp and use the following amounts of sugar and ground spices to every 5 pounds of apple pulp: 2 pounds sugar, 1/2 tablespoon allspice, 1/2 tablespoon cinnamon, 1 tablespoon cloves. Add sugar and spices to pulp and cook until of desired thickness. Stir frequently to prevent burning. Test on a cold saucer. The outside surface of the portion tested should show a slight sheen upon standing. Pour into sterilized jars or jelly glasses. When cool, cover with paraffin, mark, and store.

Apricot Marmalade

Pick over the apricots. Plunge them in hot water for 2 minutes, remove skins, cut the apricots in halves, and remove the stones. Weigh the fruit and allow 2/3 of the weight in sugar. Mix the fruit and sugar and let stand over night to dissolve the sugar. In the morning bring to the boiling point and boil 20 to 30 minutes. When the juice shows a jelly-like consistency and the fruit is transparent, pour into sterilized jelly glasses or jars. When cool, cover with a thin layer of paraffin and a tin or paper cover to exclude dust. Mark and store.

A small quantity of fresh pineapple combined with the apricots makes an especially palatable marmalade.

Carrot Marmalade

4 pounds carrots 8 cups corn syrup 3 cups sugar 10 lemons, juice

2 lemons, grated rind 1 orange, juice and rind 3/4 pound raisins, chopped

Wash and scrape the carrots. Boil till tender and chop fine, using a chopping knife and bowl. Simmer the chopped carrots and syrup together 30 minutes; then add the other ingredients and cook until thick and jelly-like. Put into sterilized jelly glasses. Cover with a thin layer of paraffin. Mark and store.

Currant Conserve

5 oranges

5 pounds currants or gooseberries

5 pounds sugar 2 pounds raisins

Boil the rind of 3 oranges until tender, scrape out the bitter white portion, and slice the yellow rind. Combine the currants, sugar, orange pulp, chopped rind, and raisins, and boil all together 20 minutes. Turn into sterilized jars; seal at once.

Fig Preserves

3 pounds whole ripe figs 3 pounds sugar 1 pint water

1 or 2 pieces ginger root 1 lemon, juice and rind 1 orange, juice and rind

Put the figs into a boiling soda solution (1 cup soda to 6 quarts boiling water) and let stand for 5 minutes. Drain off the soda solution and wash figs thoroughly in two baths of cold water.

Boil the sugar and water, add the ginger root and cleaned figs, and cook the figs until very tender. Add orange and lemon juice and rind. Boil a few minutes longer, fill sterilized jars, and seal. Mark and store.