"Binding" or '"Roux" is the flour and fat cooked together for the thickening of a sauce. For white sauce and other sauces light in color the roux is not browned. For brown sauce, tomato sauce, and gravies brown roux is prepared. In "Brown Roux" the fat and flour are both browned in cooking, hence a larger per cent of flour is required than in white sauce. "Wetting" is the liquid used in the sauce. "Stock" is the term applied to water in which vegetables, meat, or fish have cooked. A few recipes for standard sauces are given. The recipe for Medium White Sauce can be regarded as a basis for developing other sauces. To increase the variety of sauces prepared, the fat, thickening, liquid, and seasonings may all be varied as indicated in the table below.
Table Showing Variations Possible in the Ingredients in Sauces
Chicken fat Arrow root
Milk and water
. Lard Rice
Olive oil Bread crumbs
Bacon fat Cracker crumbs
2 tablespoons butter or butter substitute 2 tablespoons flour
1/2 teaspoon salt 1/8 teaspoon white pepper 1 cup milk (heated)
Sufficient for 1 pint of vegetables.
First Method of Preparing Sauce
Heat the fat. When it bubbles add flour and seasonings, add hot milk gradually, stirring constantly, and allowing the mixture to thicken and bubble each time before adding another portion of milk. Boil up once and sauce is ready to serve, or place over hot water and cook slowly till thickened.
Second Method of Preparing Sauce
Scald milk; cream butter, add flour and stir until smooth, then add to hot milk, cook 1/2 hour in double boiler, stirring occasionally; then add seasoning. Serve.
Third Method of Preparing Sauce
Scald one-half the milk; add remaining milk slowly to flour, stir this into hot milk and cook 1/2 hour in double boiler, stirring occasionally; then add seasoning and butter and stir until butter is melted. Serve.