"Binding" or '"Roux" is the flour and fat cooked together for the thickening of a sauce. For white sauce and other sauces light in color the roux is not browned. For brown sauce, tomato sauce, and gravies brown roux is prepared. In "Brown Roux" the fat and flour are both browned in cooking, hence a larger per cent of flour is required than in white sauce. "Wetting" is the liquid used in the sauce. "Stock" is the term applied to water in which vegetables, meat, or fish have cooked. A few recipes for standard sauces are given. The recipe for Medium White Sauce can be regarded as a basis for developing other sauces. To increase the variety of sauces prepared, the fat, thickening, liquid, and seasonings may all be varied as indicated in the table below.

Table Showing Variations Possible in the Ingredients in Sauces

FAT THICKENING

LIQUIDS

Butter Flour

Milk

Beef drippings Corn starch

Water

Chicken fat Arrow root

Milk and water

. Lard Rice

Cream

Olive oil Bread crumbs

Stock

Bacon fat Cracker crumbs

Vegetable

Cream Eggs

Meat

Commercial fats

Fish

Tomato juice

SEASONINGS

Salt

Pickles

Pepper

Olives

Mustard

Capers

Sweet herbs

Green peppers

Acids

Onion

Lemon

Horse-radish

Vinegar

Worcestershire

Parsley

sauce

Mint

Medium White Sauce to be used for Creamed Dishes

2 tablespoons butter or butter substitute 2 tablespoons flour

1/2 teaspoon salt 1/8 teaspoon white pepper 1 cup milk (heated)

Sufficient for 1 pint of vegetables.

First Method of Preparing Sauce

Heat the fat. When it bubbles add flour and seasonings, add hot milk gradually, stirring constantly, and allowing the mixture to thicken and bubble each time before adding another portion of milk. Boil up once and sauce is ready to serve, or place over hot water and cook slowly till thickened.

Second Method of Preparing Sauce

Scald milk; cream butter, add flour and stir until smooth, then add to hot milk, cook 1/2 hour in double boiler, stirring occasionally; then add seasoning. Serve.

Third Method of Preparing Sauce

Scald one-half the milk; add remaining milk slowly to flour, stir this into hot milk and cook 1/2 hour in double boiler, stirring occasionally; then add seasoning and butter and stir until butter is melted. Serve.