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Boston School Kitchen Text Book | by Mary J. Lincoln



In the preparation of this book the aim has not been to furnish a complete cook-book, or to cater to the widely prevalent desire for new receipts and elaborate dishes; but rather to prepare such a study of food and explanation of general principles in connection with practical lessons in plain cookiug as should be adapted to the use of classes in public and industrial schools.

TitleBoston School Kitchen Text Book
AuthorMary J. Lincoln
PublisherBoston Little, Brown, And Company
Year1909
Copyright1909, By Mary J. Lincoln
AmazonBoston school kitchen text-book: Lessons in cooking for the use of classes in public and industrial schools

Boston School Kitchen Text Book

Lessons In Cooking

For the Use of Classes in Public and Industrial Schools.

By Mrs. Mary J. Lincoln

Author Of "The Boston Cook Book", "Carving And Serving," Etc

Boston Little, Brown, And Company

Copyright, 1887, By Mrs. D. A. Lincoln.

Copyright, 1909, By Mary J. Lincoln.

Lessons In Cooking Drawing

Lessons-In-Cooking

This Book is Dedicated

To Mrs. Mary Hemenway, The Earnest And Generous Friend Of Practical Education.

M. J. L

-Foreword
IT is the accepted educational doctrine that all matters for school instruction should be taught, so far as possible, in the light of first principles. The understanding is to be engaged and thought a...
-Preface
IN the preparation of this book the aim has not been to furnish a complete cook-book, or to cater to the widely prevalent desire for new receipts and elaborate dishes; but rather to prepare such a stu...
-Suggestions To Teachers On The Management Of Classes
It is expected that all teachers in the cooking classes will have had a special normal training for the work ; but even with such training a few suggestions from one who has had a large experience in ...
-Rules Foe Housekeepers
HOUSEKEEPER No. I. A. M. Get kindlings and coal. Build the fire. Regulate the dampers. Empty ashes into sifter. Brush the stove and under and around it. Blacken the stove. Light the fire. Polish th...
-Rules For Cleaning Dishes
Collect the knives, forks, and spoons. Scrape the dishes, rinse the cups, and soak in cold water any dishes that have egg or dough adhering to them ; pack them neatly where they are to be washed. Have...
-Rules For Cleaning
When all are wiped, see that your hands are dry, then pack all things of a kind together and distribute to their places. Wash the basin, dipper, soap-dish, dish-pan, and sink with clean hot suds. Then...
-Introductory
In connection with the first and second lessons the pupils should learn about the four most important elements, namely, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, and carbon. Oxygen Oxygen is a gas found as an...
-Cooking
Cooking is the preparation of food, by the aid of heat, to nourish the human body. We cook our food to make it taste better, and that it may be more easily digested and made a part of our bodies. T...
-Heat
Artificial heat for household purposes is obtained by rapid combustion, or the chemical union of the oxygen in the air with the carbon and hydrogen found in fuel. Wood, charcoal, anthracite and bit...
-Fuel
Wood is a product of vegetable growth, found in the trunks and branches of trees. It contains hydro-carbons in a solid form. It consists of slender fibres or tubes closely packed together. When first ...
-Fires
The carbon and hydro-carbons in fuel will not burn or unite with oxygen and produce rapid combustion except at a very high temperature, - that is, when made very hot. The temperature at which this uni...
-The Making And Care Of A Fire
Remove the covers, and brush the ashes from inside the top of the stove into the fire-box. Replace the covers, close the dampers, and turn over the grate. Shake the lower grate, letting the ashes sift...
-Receipts For Lesson I
Baked Potatoes. Select potatoes of uniform size. Wash and scrub them well. Bake in a clean, hot oven from 30 to 45 m., or until soft. Break the skins to let the steam inside escape. Serve, at once,...
-Food
We learned in our last lesson about rapid combustion, by which we obtain heat to cook our food. In this lesson we are to learn what food is, and about animal heat, a result of slow combustion. Food...
-Classification Of Food. Nitrogenous Foods
Foods that supply material for growth and repair are called nitrogenous foods, because some nitrogenous compound is found in them. They are also called proteids, from a Greek word meaning first,...
-Mineral Food Or Ash
Under the general term salts, or mineral matter, are included various combinations of lime, soda, potash, sulphur, phosphorus, magnesia, and iron, which are found principally in cereals, milk, meat, f...
-Water
While water cannot in the usual sense be called a food, it fills one of the most important offices in the nutrition of the body, and ranks next to oxygen as a supporter of life. It constitutes about t...
-Measuring
Accurate measurement is necessary to insure success in cooking. Sift dry materials before measuring. Measure flour lightly, without shaking down, and butter by packing closely. A cup holding jus...
-Receipts For Lesson II
Baked Apples. 1 tsp. sugar, 1 tbsp. water, to each apple. Wipe the apples, remove the core, and put them in a granite or earthen dish. Put the sugar in the centre of each apple, and the water in...
-Questions On Lesson II
1. What part of a tsp. is a ssp. ? 2. How many tsp. in a tbsp. ? 3. If you had no cup, how could you measure 1/2 c. of flour with a tbsp. ? 4. What part of a c. is a gill ? 5. How many cup...
-Boiling, Or Cooking In Water
We have learned about baking, or cooking by dry, confined heat, and now we are to learn about cooking in a boiling liquid. This is the most common form of cooking, and water is the liquid usually empl...
-Experiment With Starch
If we soak thin slices of raw potato in cold water, after a while we find a sediment in the pan. This is starch, which has dropped out of the cells which were cut by slicing. This sediment may be puri...
-Experiment With Albumen
Albumen is a substance found in many foods in both solid and liquid forms. The white of eggs is nearly pure albumen. The yolks contain a smaller portion of it. The albumen in the white of egg is in...
-Potatoes
Potatoes are three fourths water. The solid matter consists largely of starch, with a small quantity of albumen and mineral matter, - chiefly potash salts held in solution in the juices. New potatoes,...
-General Rules For Cooking Vegetables
Prepare them for cooking as follows : Potatoes, scrub, and pare when necessary. Parsnips, scrub till white, trim off the fine roots. Carrots, scrub, and scrape off the thin outer surface. Turnips, scr...
-Lesson III. - Time-Table For Boiling, Etc
39 kettle of rapidly boiling salted water, with a saltspoon of soda. Onions, scald and change the water twice. All others, cook in water enough to cover, and drain it off after cooking. Green...
-Receipts For Lesson III
Boiled Potatoes. Select potatoes of uniform size. Wash and scrub them. Pare and cover with cold water. Put them in a saucepan of toiling salted water. (1 qt. of water and 1 tbsp. of salt for 6 larg...
-Steaming, And Other Forms Of Cooking In Boiling Water
We have found that some starchy foods need rapid cooking in boiling water, directly over the fire. The danger of burning them is avoided by using plenty of water. Sometimes it is desirable to cook ...
-Oatmeal
ing in water. In the first two methods the heat is con-. veyed from the boiling water through the boiler to the food. In the real steaming, the steam carries the heat directly to the food. To-day w...
-Milk
In cooking some kinds of food, milk is used in the place of water. Milk contains water, sugar, salts, fat, albumen, and casein. After it stands awhile, the fat separates and rises as cream. The sug...
-The Combination Of Foods
All the different kinds of food material - water, salts, sugar, starch, fat, and albumen - must be combined in our diet, for a substance which fulfils only one of the purposes required in our food wil...
-Receipts For Lesson IV
Oatmeal Mush, with Baked Apples. 1/2 c. coarse oatmeal. 2 c. boiling water. 1/2 tsp. salt. Pick over the oatmeal, put it with the salt and boiling water into the upper boiler. Place the uppe...
-First Lesson In Meat
Meat is a general term applied to the flesh of animals used for food. It includes the muscular flesh, sinews, fat, heart, liver, stomach, brains, and tongue, and is divided into three classes : Meat p...
-Boiled Meat
In boiling meat we leave the meat whole, that only a small surface may be exposed. Plunge it into boiling salted water enough to cover, and keep it there for five or ten minutes. This hardens the albu...
-Receipts For Lesson V
Boiled Mutton. Wipe, remove the fat, and put the meat into well-salted, boiling water. Boil 10 m. Skim, and simmer 12 m. for each pound of meat, or until tender. One quarter of a c. of rice is some...
-Warming Over
To be able to prepare nice, tempting dishes from the odds and ends that are left over is not only desirable, but should be regarded as a duty; for it is wrong to waste food, even if we have abundant m...
-Gravies. - Sauces. - Thickening
Gravy is the cooked juice of meat, or a mixture of it with water, thickened with flour. The term sauces is often supposed to include only certain preparations of fruit, like apple-sauce, cranbe...
-Macaroni
Macaroni is a nutritious and economical food, and should be used more freely than it is. Much of the dislike for it arises from ignorance as to the proper mode of cooking. It is made from the choicest...
-Receipts For Lesson VI
Minced Meat on Toast. Remove the fat and gristle from the mutton, and chop it fine. To 1 c. of meat, add 1 ssp. of salt, a spk. of pepper, and 1/2 c. thickened gravy. Heat quickly in a saucepan, an...
-Soups
Nearly all parts of an animal may be used as food, but from some parts we can obtain the nutriment in only one way. These are the bones and the gristle, tendons, and other gelatinous portions, some ki...
-Receipts For Lesson VII
Soup Stock. 2 lbs. hind shin of beef. 2 qts. cold water. 6 whole cloves. 6 peppercorns. 1 bunch of sweet herbs. 1 inch blade mace. 2 tsp. salt. 1 small onion. l/2 carrot. l/2 ...
-Digestion
In studying digestion it is well to keep in mind the nitrogenous and carbonaceous classification of food, because the process of digestion differs with the different foods. The use of digestion is ...
-Cooking And Caring For Invalids
In waiting upon invalids, several things are essential beside the careful preparation of their food, - perfect ventilation, cleanliness, quiet, and strict obedience to the physician's orders. Have ...
-Receipts For Lesson VIII
Lemonade. 1 lemon. 1 tbsp. sugar. 11/2 c. boiling water. Remove the peel in very thin parings, put them into a bowl, add the boiling water, and let it stand 10 m.. covered. Add the lemon j...
-Lesson IX Invalid Cookery, - Continued.
When there is a lack of nutrition from any cause, or after any long-continued or prostrating disease, the system demands immediate nourishment. Food that contains the most nutriment in the most easily...
-Toast
We toast bread not merely to brown it, but to take out all the moisture possible, that it may be more perfectly moistened with the saliva and thus easily digested ; then we brown it to give it a bette...
-Ice-Cream
Some foods are more palatable when cold, especially in hot weather, and means are often used to make them very cold. This is done by freezing. Ice-creams - mixtures of cream, milk, eggs, sugar, and fl...
-Nutritious And Innutritious Foods, And The Proper Proportions Of Food
Nutritious foods are those which contain substances that can be digested, absorbed into the blood, and assimilated or made a part of our bodies, and so promote growth and supply the waste. Nutritio...
-Receipts For Lesson IX
Toast. Cut stale bread in slices 1/4 inch thick. Put it on a toaster or fork. Move it gently over the fire till dry, then hold it nearer until golden brown. Serve dry. Water Toast. Have a sha...
-Broiling
Broiling, from bruler, meaning to burn, is cooking directly over the hot coals. It is the hottest form of cooking. The heat is so intense that the food would he quickly burned if allowed to remain ...
-Pan Broiling
It is sometimes inconvenient to broil over the coals, and nearly the same effect may be obtained by cooking in a dry, hissing-hot frying-pan. Heat the pan to a blue heat, and with a perfectly smooth p...
-First Lesson In Dough
Thus far in our lessons we have learned about only two ways of cooking the various grains which form so large and so important a part of our diet, namely, that of steaming the whole or broken grains, ...
-Receipts For Lesson X
Broiled Steak. Wipe, trim off the superfluous fat. and remove the bone. Grease the gridiron with some of the fat. Broil over a clear fire, turning every ten seconds. Cook 3 or 4 m. if liked rare: l...
-Lesson X. - Suet, Currants, And Raisins.
To Chop Suet. Cut into small pieces, remove the membranes, shave each piece in thin slices, and chop on a board. Or, if a large quantity is to be prepared, sprinkle the pieces with flour, and chop ...
-Stews
In the third and last way which we are to learn about of cooking meat in water, the object is to have the nutriment partly in the meat and partly in the water. We use a small quantity of water, - l...
-First Lesson In Batters
Batters are thin mixtures of flour and liquid made in the proportion of one scant measure of liquid to one full measure of flour. If merely mixed and cooked slowly they would be hard and compact. But ...
-Receipts For Lesson XII
RECEIPTS FOR LESSON XII. Griddle Cakes. 1 c. flour. 1 ssp. salt. 1 tsp. baking-powder. 1 c. sweet milk (scant). 1 tsp. melted butter. Sift flour, baking-powder, and salt together. Add t...
-Thicker Batters, Muffins, And Doughnuts; Rolling And Frying
There are several degrees of thickness in batters. Thin batters are about the consistency of thin cream; thick batters are like thick cream; still thicker batters are stiff enough to keep their shape ...
-Rolling
Soft doughs which are to be cut into shapes should be mixed as soft as can be handled easily, then tossed out lightly on the floured board until they are well floured, patted with the rolling-pin unti...
-Frying
Frying is cooking in hot fat. To be done properly there should be fat enough to float the articles to be cooked, or in some instances to cover them. Lard and dripping may be used, and as they often co...
-Receipts For Lesson XIII
General Directions. Have the pans ready and greased, if necessary, the fire in good condition, and all the ingredients at hand before you begin to put together. By measuring dry things first, then ...
-Questions On Lesson XIII
Questions on Lesson XIII. 8. Why is it better to mix the soda with the flour rather than to dissolve it ? 9. Why should soda be finely pulverized ? 10. What is cooking soda ? 11. What is c...
-Bread
Bread is a form of food made from the meal or flour of certain grains. The word is derived from the verb to bray or pound, expressive of the old method of preparing the grain. Bread is therefore ...
-The Heat For Baking
The heat of the oven for baking is a very difficult matter for a beginner to determine. There are no rules that can be strictly followed in every case. Testing the heat by a thermometer is not always ...
-Receipts For Lesson XIV
Yeast. 1 largo potato. 1 tbsp. hops (loose). 1 pt boiling water. 1 hp. tbsp. flour. 1 hp. tsp. sugar. 1 hp. tsp. salt. 1/4 tsp. ginger. 1/2 yeast cake or 1/2 c. yeast. Wash, pare, and s...
-The Care Of Food
Your instruction would not be complete if we omitted to tell you how to take care of food, both before and after cooking, and how to prevent the waste that is so often occasioned by lack of such knowl...
-Receipts For Lesson XV
Pastry. 1 hp. c. pastry flour. 1 ssp. baking-powder. 1 ssp. salt. 1 tbsp. dripping or butter. 1 tbsp. lard. Sift flour, salt, and baking-powder together, and rub or chop in the dripping. Mix ...
-The Adaptation Of Food To Age, Occupation, Climate, And Means
We have learned that we need a variety of food in our daily diet, and that the selection of food should be determined by the state of health, and by individual digestive power. Age, occupation, climat...
-The Cheapest Foods
Indian corn is used in many forms. Some varieties which contain a large proportion of sugar are eaten green from the cob as a vegetable. The whole grains, hulled, are eaten as samp, or hulled corn; br...
-Peas And Beans
The seeds of leguminous plants, such as peas and beans, contain a large proportion of albuminoids in the form of vegetable .caseine. They are deficient in fat, but rich in mineral matter. They are ...
-Poultry
The flesh of poultry has less red blood and is drier than the flesh of animals. It is not marbled with fat, and as it abounds in phosphates it is valuable food, particularly for invalids. The fibres a...
-Veal
The fat of veal should be white and clear, and the lean meat pink or flesh-color. White veal, or that from a calf less than six weeks old, is unfit to eat. Veal has but little juice, flavor, and nutri...
-Receipts For Lesson XVII
Chicken Fricassee. Clean the chicken, and at the joints cut into pieces for serving. Cover with boiling water, add 2 tsp. salt and 1 ssp. pepper. Simmer till the meat is tender. Remove the large...
-Fish
Fish, on account of its abundance, cheapness, and wholesomeness, is invaluable as an article of food. It is pound for pound less nutritious and less stimulating than meat, but is rich in phosphorus an...
-Receipts For Cooking Fish
Broiled Fish. To broil mackerel, white fish, small blue-fish, trout, small cod, shad, or any other thin fish, split them down the back, and remove the head and tail. Sometimes it is well to remove ...
-Lesson XIX. Eggs
Some people consider it extravagant to use many eggs in cooking. It is extravagant to use them unnecessarily, that is, to use four in a place where one would answer the same purpose, as in muffins or ...
-Oysters
Oysters are used more extensively and are more highly prized than any other shell-fish. They are easily digested when fresh and only slightly cooked, but when over-cooked they are tough and leathery. ...
-Lobsters
The city markets are now so well supplied with these delicious shell-fish that they may be obtained in good condition all the year, but they are usually cheaper in the spring. Lobsters are put alive i...
-Cake Making And Baking
It is not our purpose to give much time or attention to cake making in these lessons. There is little danger of this branch of cooking being neglected ; and gratifying as it would be to school-girls g...
-Baking Cake
Baking Cake. Do not attempt to make cake unless you can have entire control of the fire. It should be rather low, but sufficient to heat the oven moderately, and to last without replenishing through t...
-Receipts For Lesson XIX
1/4 c. butter. 1 c. sugar. 2 eggs. 1/2 c. milk. See that the fire and oven are right, and have all the ingredients at hand. Line the pans with buttered paper. Mix the baking-powder and spice ...
-Lesson XIX. - Oysters.
When seasoned with salt, pepper, and butter it is called a plain roast; if put on toast, a fancy roast Fried Oysters. Season large prepared oysters with salt and pepper. Roll them in fine cracke...
-Laying The Table
These directions are not intended merely for occasional dinners. They are for every - day home life ; and though every detail may not be adapted to all families, yet any housekeeper, no matter how lim...
-Waiting On The Table
The want of a maid to wait on the table is no excuse for the sort of every-one-for-himself style of serving which is too often seen. Children, boys as well as girls, should be taught and allowed to he...
-Table Manners
There is no place where it is more essential, or where there is a better opportunity to observe the golden rule, than at the daily home table. If you please, and No, I thank you, are in far b...
-Table Of Average Cost Of Material Used In Cooking
1 cup of flour or meal . . . $ 80.01 1 sugar......06 1 butter......20 l egg.........03 1 cup of molasses.....05 1 milk.......02 1 tablespoonful of wine . . .02 1 brandy . .04 ...
-Table Of Cost Of Meat And Game
Shin of beef, 3 to 6 cts. per lb. Lamb, leg, 14 to 30 cts. per lb. Middle cut of shin, 7 to 10 Lamb, chops, 15 to 40 ...
-Additional Receipts
As a lesson in some dishes which are in common use would require too long a time, or would be too expensive to attempt at the school, the following receipts are given for those pupils who wish to try ...







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